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Home > Publications > Research Papers > > Chapter 4: A Resource Guide to the Social Sciences
Beyond Technology: Strengthening Energy Policy through Social Science

Chapter 4: A Resource Guide to the Social Sciences

Many outstanding social science questions related to energy production and use are in urgent need of attention from researchers. Nevertheless, a large body of literature on the societal aspects of energy is already available to policy makers and technologists. While not comprehensive, the following list of references is indicative of the extent and scope of this research.

SELECTED NATIONAL ACADEMIES AND U.S. GOVERNMENT REPORTS

Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. 1996–2011. Annual Energy Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. http://205.254.135.24/totalenergy/data/annual/.

National Research Council. 1984. Energy Use: The Human Dimension. New York: Freeman. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9259.html.

National Research Council. 1984. Improving Energy Demand Analysis. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10457.html.

National Research Council. 1985. Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Behavioral Issues. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10463.html.

National Research Council. 1989. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/1189.html.

National Research Council. 1992. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/1792.html.

National Research Council. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5138.html.

National Research Council. 1997. Environmentally Significant Consumption: Research Directions. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5430.html.

National Research Council. 2002. New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10401.html.

National Research Council. 2008. Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12434.html.

National Research Council. 2009. America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12091.html.

National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12782.html.

National Research Council. 2010. Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects and Impediments. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12619.html.

National Research Council. 2010. Facilitating Climate Change Responses: A Report of Two Workshops on Knowledge from the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12996.html.

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. 2010. Report to the President on Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-energy-tech-report.pdf.

United States Department of Energy. 2006. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/congress-1252d.pdf.

United States Department of Energy. 2011. Report on the First Quadrennial Technology Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. http://energy.gov/downloads/report-first-quadrennial-technology-review.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Clean Energy-Environment Guide to Action: Policies, Best Practices and Action Steps for States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/resources/action-guide.html.

REVIEWS ON BEHAVIOR AND ENERGY

Feimer, N. R., and E. S. Geller, eds. 1983. Environmental Psychology: Directions and Perspectives. New York: Praeger Press.

Gardner, G. T., and P. C. Stern. 2002. Environmental Problems and Human Behavior. 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.

Lutzenhiser, L. 1993. “Social and Behavioral Aspects of Energy Use.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 18 (1): 247–89. doi:10.1146/annurev.eg.18.110193.001335.

Wilson, C., and H. Dowlatabadi. 2007. “Models of Decision Making and Residential Energy Use.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32: 169–203. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.32.053006.141137.

HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Black, J. S., P. C. Stern, and J. T. Elworth. 1985. “Personal and Contextual Influences on Household Energy Adaptations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 70: 3–21. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.70.1.3.

Carrico, A. R., P. Padgett, M. P. Vandenbergh, J. Gilligan, and K. A. Wallston. 2009. “Costly Myths: An Analysis of Idling Beliefs and Behavior in Personal Motor Vehicles.” Energy Policy 37: 2881–88. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.031.

Costanzo, M., D. Archer, E. Aronson, and T. Pettigrew. 1986. “Energy Conservation Behavior: The Difficult Path from Information to Action.” American Psychologist 41: 521–28. doi:10.1016/0360-5442(84)90108-7.

Dietz, T. 2010. “Narrowing the US Energy Efficiency Gap.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 16007–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1010651107.

Dietz, T., G. T. Gardner, J. Gilligan, P. C. Stern, and M. P. Vandenbergh. 2009. “Household Actions Can Provide a Behavioral Wedge to Rapidly Reduce U.S. Carbon Emissions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 18452–56. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908738106.

Gardner, G. T., and P. C. Stern. 2008. “The Short List: Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Limit Climate Change.” Environment 50 (5): 13–24. doi:10.3200/ENVT.50.5.12-25.

Gardner, G. T., P. C. Stern, T. Dietz, M. P. Vandenbergh, and J. M. Gilligan. 2010. “A Comprehensive Program to Rapidly Reduce U.S. Residential Carbon Emissions.” Paper presented at the Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change Conference, Sacramento, CA, November 15. http://www.stanford.edu/group/peec/cgi-bin/docs/events/2010/becc/presentations/2B_JonathanGilligan.pdf.

Gatersleben, B., L. Steg, and C. Vlek. 2002. “Measurement and Determinants of Environmentally Significant Consumer Behavior.” Environment and Behavior 34 (3): 335–62. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1177/0013916502034003004.

Hobson, K. 2003. “Thinking Habits into Action: The Role of Knowledge and Process in Questioning Household Consumption Practices.” Local Environment 8 (1): 95–112. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13549830306673 .

Sonderegger, R. C. 1978. “Movers and Stayers: The Resident’s Contribution to Variation across Houses in Energy Consumption for Space Heating.” Energy and Buildings 1: 313–24. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/0378-7788(78)90011-7.

Stern, P. C. 2008. “Environmentally Significant Behavior in the Home.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour, edited by A. Lewis, 363–82. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Stern, P. C., E. Aronson, J. M. Darley, D. H. Hill, E. Hirst, W. Kempton, and T. J. Wilbanks. 1986. “The Effectiveness of Incentives for Residential Energy Conservation.” Evaluation Review 10 (2): 147–76. doi:10.1177/0193841X8601000201.

Stern, P. C., J. S. Black, and J. T. Elworth. 1983. “Responses to Changing Energy Conditions among Massachusetts Households.” Energy 8: 515–23. doi:10.1016/0360-5442(83)90077-4.

Stevenson, F., and A. Leaman. 2010. “Evaluating Housing Performance in Relation to Human Behaviour: New Challenges.” Building Research and Information 38: 437–41. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1080/09613218.2010.497282.

CONSUMER DECISION MAKING

Attari, S. Z., M. L. DeKay, C. I. Davidson, and W. Bruine de Bruin. 2010. “Public Perceptions of Energy Consumption and Savings.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 16054–59. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001509107.

de Haan, P., M. G. Mueller, and R. W. Scholz. 2009. “How Much Do Incentives Affect Car Purchase? Agent-Based Microsimulation of Consumer Choice of New Cars—Part II: Forecasting Effects of Feebates Based on Energy-Efficiency.” Energy Policy 37: 1083–94. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.11.003.

Gallagher, K. S., and E. Muehlegger. 2011. “Giving Green to Get Green: Incentives and Consumer Adoption of Hybrid Vehicle Technology.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 61 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2010.05.004.

Jaffe, A. B., and R. N. Stavins. 1994. “The Energy Efficiency Gap: What Does It Mean?” Energy Policy 22: 804–10. doi:10.1016/0301-4215(94)90138-4.

Krantz, D. H., and H. C. Kunreuther. 2007. “Goals and Plans in Decision Making.” Judgment and Decision Making 2 (3): 137–68. http://journal.sjdm.org/7303b/jdm7303b.htm.

Levine, M. D., J. G. Koomey, J. E. McMahon, A. H. Sanstad, and E. Hirst. 1995. “Energy Efficiency Policy and Market Failures.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 20: 535–55. doi:10.1146/annurev.eg.20.110195.002535.

Mueller, M. G., and P. de Haan. 2009. “How Much Do Incentives Affect Car Purchase? Agent-Based Microsimulation of Consumer Choice of New Cars—Part I: Model Structure, Simulation of Bounded Rationality, and Model Validation.” Energy Policy 37: 1072–82. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.11.002.

Small, K. A., and K. Van Dender. 2007. “Fuel Efficiency and Motor Vehicle Travel: The Declining Rebound Effect.” Energy Journal 28 (1): 25–51. doi:10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol28-No1-2.

Turrentine, T. S., and K. S. Kurani. 2007. “Car Buyers and Fuel Economy?” Energy Policy 35: 1213– 23. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.03.005.

Wall, R., P. Devine-Wright, and G. A. Mill. 2007. “Comparing and Combining Theories to Explain Proenvironmental Intentions: The Case of Commuting-Mode Choice.” Environment and Behavior 39 (6): 731–53. doi:10.1177/0013916506294594.

INFORMATIONAL INTERVENTION

Burgess, J., and M. Nye. 2008. “Re-materialising Energy Use through Transparent Monitoring Systems.” Energy Policy 36: 4454–59. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.039.

Bye, T., and A. Bruvoll. 2008. “Multiple Instruments to Change Energy Behaviour: The Emperor’s New Clothes?” Energy Efficiency 1 (4): 373–86. doi:10.1007/s12053-008-9023-9.

Darby, S. 2006. The Effectiveness of Feedback on Energy Consumption: A Review for DEFRA of the Literature on Metering, Billing and Direct Displays. Oxford, U.K.: Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford. http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/research/energy/electric-metering.php.

Ehrhardt-Martinez, K., K. A. Donnelly, and J. A. Laitner. 2010. Advanced Metering Initiatives and Residential Feedback Programs: A Meta-review for Household Electricity-Saving Opportunities. Washington, D.C.: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. http://www.aceee.org/research-report/e105.

Faruqui, A., S. Sergici, A. Sharif. 2010. “The Impact of Informational Feedback on Energy Consumption—A Survey of the Experimental Evidence.” Energy 35 (4): 1598–608. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.energy.2009.07.042.

Fischer, C. 2008. “Feedback on Household Electricity Consumption: A Tool for Saving Energy?” Energy Efficiency 1 (4): 79–104. doi:10.1007/s12053-008-9009-7.

Heffner, R. R., T. S. Turrentine, and K. S. Kurani. 2006. A Primer on Automobile Semiotics. Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-01. Davis, CA: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California. http://pubs.its.ucdavis.edu/publication_detail.php?id=136.

Neenan, B., and J. Robinson. 2009. Residential Electricity Use Feedback: A Research Synthesis and Economic Framework. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute. http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=000000000001016844.

Siero, F. W., A. B. Bakker, G. B. Dekker, and M. T. C. Van Den Burg. 1996. “Changing Organizational Energy Consumption Behaviour through Comparative Feedback.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 16 (3): 235–46. doi:10.1006/jevp.1996.0019.

Temple, J. L., K. Johnson, K. Recupero, and H. Suders. 2010. “Nutrition Labels Decrease Energy Intake in Adults Consuming Lunch in the Laboratory.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110: 1094–97. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.04.006.

Vandenbergh, M. P., T. Dietz, and P. C. Stern. 2011. “Time to Try Carbon Labeling.” Nature Climate Change 1: 4–6. doi:10.1038/nclimate1071.

PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES

Abrahamse, W., and L. Steg. 2009. “How Do Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Relate to Households’ Direct and Indirect Energy Use and Savings?” Journal of Economic Psychology 30: 711–20. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2009.05.006.

Ajzen, I. 1991. “The Theory of Planned Behavior.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50: 179–211.

Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein. 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein. 1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bamberg, S., and G. Moser. 2007. “Twenty years after Hines, Hungerford, and Tomera: A New Meta-analysis of Psycho-social Determinants of Pro-environmental Behaviour.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 27: 14–25. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.12.002.

Clark, C. F., M. J. Kotchen, and M. R. Moore. 2003. “Internal and External Influences on Pro-environmental Behavior: Participation in a Green Electricity Program.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 23: 237–46. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00105-6.

Dietz, T., A. Dan, and R. Shwom. 2007. “Support for Climate Change Policy: Social Psychological and Social Structural Influences.” Rural Sociology 72: 185–214. doi/10.1526/003601107781170026/abstract.

Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, and B. Combs. 1978. “How Safe Is Safe Enough? A Psychometric Study of Attitudes towards Technological Risks and Benefits.” Policy Sciences 9: 127– 52. doi:10.1007/BF00143739.

Gonzales, M. H., E. Aronson, and M. A. Costanzo. 1988. “Using Social Cognition and Persuasion to Promote Energy Conservation: A Quasi-experiment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 18 (12): 1049–66. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb01192.x.

Guagnano, G., P. C. Stern, and T. Dietz. 1995. “Influences on Attitude-Behavior Relationships: A Natural Experiment with Curbside Recycling.” Environment and Behavior 27: 699–718. doi:10.1177/0013916595275005.

Heberlein, T. A., and G. K. Warriner. 1983. “The Influence of Price and Attitude on Shifting Residential Electricity Consumption from On- to Off-Peak Periods.” Journal of Economic Psychology 4: 107–130. doi:10.1016/0167-4870(83)90048-X.

Hunecke, M., S. Haustein, S. Grischkat, and S. Böhler. 2007. “Psychological, Sociodemographic, and Infrastructural Factors as Determinants of Ecological Impact Caused by Mobility Behavior.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 27 (4): 277–92. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.08.001.

Kaiser, F. G. 1998. “A General Measure of Ecological Behavior.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28: 395–422. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01712.x.

Kaiser, F. G., S. Wölfing, and U. Fuhrer. 1999. “Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behaviour.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 19: 1–19. doi:10.1006/jevp.1998.0107.

Kempton, W., J. M. Darley, and P. C. Stern. 1992. “Psychological Research for the New Energy Problems: Strategies and Opportunities.” American Psychologist 47: 1213–23. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.10.1213.

Kollmuss, A., and J. Agyeman. 2002. “Mind the Gap: Why Do People Act Environmentally and What Are the Barriers to Pro-environmental Behavior?” Environmental Education Research 8 (3): 239– 60. doi:10.1080/13504620220145401.

Kopelman, S., J. M. Weber, and D. M. Messick. 2002. “Factors Influencing Cooperation in Commons Dilemmas: A Review of Experimental Psychological Research.” In The Drama of the Commons, edited by E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P. C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E. Weber, 113–56. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10287.html.

Lindenberg, S., and L. Steg. 2007. “Normative, Gain and Hedonic Goal Frames Guiding Environmental Behavior.” Journal of Social Issues 63 (1): 117–37. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00499.x.

Maio, G. R., B. Verplanken, A. S. R. Manstead, W. Stroebe, C. S. Abraham, P. Sheeran, and M. Conner. 2007. “Social Psychological Factors in Lifestyle Change and Their Relevance to Policy.” Social Issues and Policy Review 1: 99–137. doi:10.1111/j.1751-2409.2007.00005.x.

Marks, S. 1979. “Culture, Human Energy, and Self-Actualization: A Sociological Offering to Humanistic Psychology.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 19 (3): 27–42. doi:10.1177/002216787901900308.

Nolan, J. M., P. W. Schultz, R. B. Cialdini, N. J. Goldstein, and V. Griskevicius. 2008. “Normative Social Influence Is Underdetected.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (7): 913–23. doi:10.1177/0146167208316691 .

O’Neill, B. C., and B. Chen. 2001. “Demographic Determinants of Household Energy Use in the United States.” Population and Development Review 28 (Suppl.): 53–88. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3115268.

Schahn, J., and E. Holzer. 1990. “Studies of Individual Environmental Concern: The Role of Knowledge, Gender, and Background Variables.” Environment and Behavior 22: 767–86. doi:10.1177/0013916590226003.

Slovic, P. 1987. “Perception of Risk.” Science 236: 280–85. doi:10.1126/science.3563507.

Slovic, P. 2000. The Perception of Risk. London: Earthscan.

Steg, L., L. Dreijerink, and W. Abrahamse. 2005. “Factors Influencing the Acceptability of Energy Policies: A Test of VBN Theory.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 25: 415–25. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.003.

Stern, P. C. 2000. “Psychology and the Science of Human-Environment Interactions.” American Psychologist 55: 523–30. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/55/5/523.html.

Stern, P. C. 2000. “New Environmental Theories: Toward a Coherent Theory of Environmentally Significant Behavior.” Journal of Social Issues 56 (3): 407–24. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00175.

Stern, P. C., T. Dietz, and G. A. Guagnano. 1995. “The New Ecological Paradigm in Social-Psychological Context.” Environment and Behavior 27: 723–43. doi:10.1177/0013916595276001.

Stern, P. C., and G. T. Gardner. 1981. “Psychological Research and Energy Policy.” American Psychologist 36: 329–42. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.36.4.329.

Swim, J., P. C. Stern, T. J. Doherty, S. Clayton, J. P. Reser, E. U. Weber, R. Gifford, and G. S. Howard. 2011. “Psychology’s Contributions to Understanding and Addressing Global Climate Change.” American Psychologist 66 (4): 241–50. doi:10.1037/a0023220.

SOCIAL NORMS AND SOCIAL INFLUENCE

Aronson, E., and M. O’Leary. 1983. “The Relative Effectiveness of Models and Prompts on Energy Conservation: A Field Experiment in a Shower Room.” Journal of Environmental Systems 12: 219– 24. doi:10.2190/UBD5-4y9B-61EF-WUM6.

Barbour, I., H. Brooks, S. Lakoff, and J. Opie. 1982. Energy and American Values. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Cialdini, R. B. 2003. “Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12 (4): 105–9. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01242.

Cialdini, R. B., R. R. Reno, and C. A. Kallgren. 1990. “A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: Recycling the Concept of Norms to Reduce Littering in Public Places.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58 (6): 1015–26. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.58.6.1015.

Goldstein, N. J., V. Griskevicius, and R. B. Cialdini. 2007. “Invoking Social Norms: A Social Psychology Perspective on Improving Hotels’ Linen-Reuse Programs.” Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 48 (2): 145–50. doi:10.1177/0010880407299542.

Harland, P., H. Staats, and H. A. M. Wilke. 2007. “Situational and Personality Factors as Direct or Personal Norm Mediated Predictors of Pro-environmental Behavior: Questions Derived from Norm-Activation Theory.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 29 (4): 323–34. doi:10.1080/01973530701665058.

Matthies, E. 2003. “One to Bind Them All: How the Modified Moral Decision Making Model Can Be Used for the Integration of Measures to Promote Pro-environmental Travel Mode Choices.” In Crossing Boundaries—The Value of Interdisciplinary Research, edited by T. Craig, 103–9. Aberdeen: Robert Gordon University.

Meek, W. R., D. F. Pacheco, and J. G. york. 2010. “The Impact of Social Norms on Entrepreneurial Action: Evidence from the Environmental Entrepreneurship Context.” Journal of Business Venturing 25 (5): 493–509. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.09.007.

Nilsson, A., C. von Borgstede, and A. Biel. 2004. “Willingness to Accept Climate Change Strategies: The Effect of Values and Norms.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 24: 267–77. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2004.06.002.

Schultz, P. W., A. Khazian, and A. Zaleski. 2008. “Using Normative Social Influence to Promote Conservation among Hotel Guests.” Social Influence 3: 4–23. doi:10.1080/15534510701755614.

Schultz, P. W., J. Nolan, R. Cialdini, N. Goldstein, and V. Griskevicius. 2007. “The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms.” Psychological Science 18: 429–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01917.x.

Schwartz, S. H. 1977. “Normative Influences on Altruism.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 10, edited by L. Berkowitz, 221–79. New York: Academic Press.

Stern, P. C., T. Dietz, T. Abel, G. A. Guagnano, and L. Kalof. 1999. “A Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Support for Social Movements: The Case of Environmentalism.” Human Ecology Review 6: 81–97. doi:10.2307/2083693.

COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC OPINION

Abroms L. C., and E. W. Maibach. 2008. “The Effectiveness of Mass Communication to Change Public Behavior.” Annual Review of Public Health 29: 219–34. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090824

Apt, J., and B. Fischhoff. 2006. “Power and People.” The Electricity Journal 19 (9): 17–25. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2006.09.008.

Bator, R. J., and R. B. Cialdini. 2000. “New Ways to Promote Proenvironmental Behavior: The Application of Persuasion Theory to the Development of Effective Proenvironmental Public Service Announcements.” Journal of Social Issues 56 (3): 527–41. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00182.

Dunlap, R. E, and K. D. Van Liere. 2008. “The ‘New Environmental Paradigm’: A Proposed Measuring Instrument and Preliminary Results.” Journal of Environmental Education 40: 19–28. doi:10.3200/JOEE.40.1.19-28.

Dunlap, R. E., K. D. Van Liere, A. G. Mertig, and R. E. Jones. 2000. “Measuring Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A Revised NEP Scale.” In “Promoting Environmentalism,” edited by L. Zelezny and W. Schultz. Special issue, Journal of Social Issues 56 (3): 425–42.

Kasemir, B., D. Schibli, S. Stoll, and C. Jaeger. 2000. “Involving the Public in Climate and Energy Decisions.” Environment 42: 32–42. doi:10.1080/00139150009604874.

Leiserowitz, A., E. Maibach, and C. Roser-Renouf, and N. Smith. 2011. Global Warming’s Six Americas in May 2011. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. http://environment.yale.edu/climate/files/SixAmericasMay2011.pdf.

Mazur, A., and E. Rosa. 1974. “Energy and Life-Style: Massive Energy Consumption May Not Be Necessary to Maintain Current Living Standards in America.” Science 186: 607–10. doi:10.1126/science.186.4164.607.

McDonald, S. 2009. “Changing Climate, Changing Minds: Applying the Literature on Media Effects, Public Opinion, and the Issue-Attention Cycle to Increase Public Understanding of Climate Change.” International Journal of Sustainability 4: 45–63. http://195.37.26.249/ijsc/en/details/mcdonald_04.php.

McKenzie-Mohr, D. 2000. “Fostering Sustainable Behavior through Community-Based Social Marketing.” American Psychologist 55: 531–37. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.531.

McKenzie-Mohr, D., and W. Smith. 1999. Fostering Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

Nisbet, M. C., and D. A. Scheufele. 2009. “What’s Next for Science Communication? Promising Directions and Lingering Distractions.” American Journal of Botany 96 (10): 1767–78. doi:10.3732/ajb.0900041.

Rosa, E. A., and R. E. Dunlap. 1994. “The Polls—Poll Trends: Nuclear Power: Three Decades of Public Opinion.” Public Opinion Quarterly 58: 295–325. doi:10.1086/269425.

Shwom, R., D. Bidwell, A. Dan, and T. Dietz. 2010. “Understanding U.S. Public Support for Domestic Climate Change Policies.” Global Environmental Change 20: 472–82. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.02.003.

Slovic, P., J. Flynn, and M. Layman. 1991. “Perceived Risk, Trust, and the Politics of Nuclear Waste.” Science 254: 1603–7. doi:10.1126/science.254.5038.1603.

Snyder L. B., M. A. Hamilton, E. W. Mitchell, J. Kiwanuka-Tondo, F. Fleming-Milici, and D. Proctor. 2004. “A Meta-analysis of the Effect of Mediated Health Communication Campaigns on Behavior Change in the United States.” Journal of Health Communication 9 (Suppl. 1): 71–96. doi:10.1080/10810730490271548.

Thøgerson, J., and T. Crompton. 2007. “Simple and Painless? The Limitations of Spillover in Environmental Campaigning.” Journal of Consumer Policy 32: 141–63. doi:10.1007/s10603-009-9101-1.

Tuler, S. P. 2010. “Factors Influencing Public Support and Opposition to Renewable Energy Facility Siting: A Review of the Literature.” Paper presented at the Workshop on Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change through the Behavioral and Social Sciences, National Academies of Sciences, Washington D.C., December 3–4.

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BEHAVIOR AND ECONOMIC MODELING

Bernheim, B. D., and A. Rangel. 2007. “Behavioral Public Economics: Welfare and Policy Analysis with Non-standard Decision-Makers.” In Behavioral Economics and Its Applications, edited by P. Diamond and H. Vartiainen, 7–84. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION

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Lewis, J., and R. Wiser. 2007. “Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An International Comparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms.” Energy Policy 35: 1844–57. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.06.005.

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PROGRAM DESIGN AND EVALUATION

Abrahamse, W., L. Steg, C. Vlek, and T. Rothengatter. 2005. “A Review of Intervention Studies Aimed at Household Energy Conservation.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 25: 273–91. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.002.

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POLICY CONSIDERATIONS

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INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

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SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

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ENERGY AND THE ECONOMY

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ENERGY, CULTURE, AND THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

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