With the recent attention to new nuclear power, the challenge of managing the spread
of nuclear technology has increased. At the same time, the growth of interest in
nuclear power can serve as an important opportunity to improve the related safety,
security, and nonproliferation regimes. One such opportunity arises in the context
of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the concern over how to mitigate
the spread of enrichment and reprocessing, as well as how to store and ultimately
dispose of spent nuclear fuel.
The first essay in this collection, “The Key Role of the Back-End in the Nuclear
Fuel Cycle” by Charles McCombie and Thomas Isaacs, has been reprinted from
the Winter 2010 issue of Daedalus on the global nuclear future.
It focuses on the proliferation concerns that arise from enrichment and reprocessing
as well as on the opportunities at the back-end of the fuel cycle for regional and
international initiatives that may help to assuage energy, security, and waste concerns.
Managing the emerging nuclear order will require the development of a clear set
of goals, in which the issues surrounding the back-end of the fuel cycle must be
included and satisfactorily addressed. This essay seeks to contribute to those efforts.
It is followed by four new papers whose authors were invited to reflect on this
issue and to share their thoughts on this topic. These new papers reflect a diversity
of sources and opinions, in keeping with both the global importance of these questions
and the benefits of developing an international perspective on how they might be
addressed. The authors focus on various aspects of the challenges raised by the
back-end of the fuel cycle and offer possible options for addressing these challenges.
This volume also includes an edited version of remarks made by Ellen Tauscher, Under
Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security, at a January 2010
conference at the Hoover Institution in Stanford, California. Under Secretary Tauscher’s
remarks underscore the shared sense of the importance of addressing the back-end
of the fuel cycle, in government as well as within academic and other non-governmental
This importance cannot be overstated when considering the growth of nuclear power.
As Tariq Rauf observes in his essay, most of the spent fuel around the world is
kept at the nuclear power plants that have generated it. All of the authors, however,
support the idea of moving from the current status quo toward some form of multinational
or international approach to dealing with spent fuel, including the possibility
of the establishment of international spent-fuel repositories. Although Rauf notes
the likelihood of strong public opposition to international repositories (based
on the traditional resistance even to national repositories), Frank von Hippel observes
that communities in Finland and Sweden that host nuclear power plants have actually
volunteered to host underground repositories, suggesting that it may be possible
for public opposition—even toward international repositories—eventually
to be overcome.
Two of the authors (Frank von Hippel and Atsuyuki Suzuki) suggest that the United
States should be the first to serve as a host for an international repository and
take spent fuel from other countries with small programs, as a way both to strengthen
the nonproliferation regime and to increase nuclear safety and security worldwide.
Suzuki asserts that such an approach, by the United States, would serve as an “epoch-making
opportunity for the [Obama] administration to take the leadership” on this
The essays in this collection engage with the challenge of the back-end of the fuel
cycle in very different ways, whether through a cross-comparison of the programs
of Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Russia, or through a focus on the history and
current role of international organizations in this area. All, however, are linked
by a recognition that the back-end of the fuel cycle has often been overlooked in
discussions of the anticipated nuclear renaissance. They also share a general support,
in principle, for international approaches to the back-end of the fuel cycle, although,
as Noramly Bin Muslim points out, such approaches “by no means constitute
a ‘magic bullet’ that can solve nonproliferation problems.”
This publication thus stands as the continuation of the conversation begun both
by the special issues of Daedalus on the Global Nuclear Future and by a
meeting sponsored by the Academy in Abu Dhabi on nuclear power in the Middle East.
With a growing desire for development, and a reliable energy supply, comes the need
for a global expansion in nuclear power. A serious discussion of all aspects of
this expansion is necessary if it is to be managed safely and securely. We hope
that the papers contained herein contribute to that discussion and help to build
the basis for a more sustainable international nuclear order.
This Occasional Paper is part of the American Academy’s Global Nuclear Future
Initiative, which is guided by the Academy’s Committee on International Security
Studies. The Initiative examines the safety, security, and nonproliferation implications
of the global spread of nuclear energy and is developing pragmatic recommendations
for managing the emerging nuclear order. The Global Nuclear Future Initiative is
supported by generous grants from Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr.; the S.D. Bechtel Foundation;
the Carnegie Corporation of New York; the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation;
the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; the Flora Family Foundation; and the Kavli Foundation.
We thank these funders for their support.
The Academy is grateful to the principal investigators of the Global Nuclear Future
Initiative—Steven E. Miller, Scott D. Sagan, Robert Rosner, and Thomas Isaacs—along
with expert members of the project’s advisory committee—John
W. Rowe, Richard A. Meserve, and Albert Carnesale—for contributing their time,
experience, and expertise to the work of the Initiative. We would also like to thank
the authors for bringing their knowledge and insight to bear on these important
Chief Executive Officer and William T. Golden Chair
American Academy of Arts