Finding Aid |

RG I-C-1: General Records. Communications to the Academy – Bound


Historical Note

In February 1781, the Academy published a call for papers from the “ingenious in every profession” for consideration and discussion by its members and for possible publication in the Memoirs. Over the many years, members and non-members alike would send communications to be published initially in Memoirs and later in Proceedings. The earliest concern observations of the natural world, especially of meteorological phenomena, though also include concepts in mathematics, discussion of antiquities, and medical treatments. All such correspondence was initially the responsibility of the Corresponding Secretary, one of the original officers of the Academy. Though various forms of review were instituted, generally the Corresponding Secretary would announce the receipt of the communication, and it may be transferred to a committee for review upon a vote.

Beginning sometime in the late 1800s, incoming communications were pasted into bound scrapbooks.

Scope and Content

The Bound Communications consist of correspondence and articles sent to the American Academy for consideration by Academy Members and possible publication in the Academy’s Memoirs or Proceedings. Most are in the form of letters or documents, submitted to the Academy by Fellows and members of the public in hopes of discussion by the Academy, possible endorsement, and eventual publication. Most concern observations of natural phenomena, especially of the heavens; some describe new concepts in mathematics; and others describe medical events and offer new solutions for improvement in prevention and treatment of disease. Subjects also include antiquities, such as the Dighton Rock, and antique systems of writing. The documents also cover finance and commerce, most with the understanding that improvements in technology will benefit all of society.

Note: The Academy's serial publications are available through JSTOR:


2 volumes contained within 3.0 document cases, Boxes 2028.1, 2028.2, 2028.3 (1.5 linear feet)


The original order of the materials has been maintained. The communications are arranged in two bound volumes in rough chronological order.

Preferred Citation

[Item title, date]. RG I-C-1: General records. Communications to the Academy – Bound, 1780-1810. Archives, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts.




Aurora borealis
Letter books
Natural history
Public health


Volume 1, 1780-1790

Page 01-1

Letter from Joseph Palmer to James Bowdoin, 1780 February 9; Germantown, [MA].

Transcribes two descriptions of making steel, “Conversion of malleable or forged Iron into Steel, by the Coal of animal or vegetable substances” and “Conversion of crude iron into Steel, by refasion and percussion”. Returns a book of Bowdoin’s, Cramer on Metals. Expresses wish that the Court would establish a new position of “Assay-Master”.
Note: Germantown is now a part of Quincy, MA.

Creator:  Palmer, Joseph, 1716-1788

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Page 01-2

Extract of a Letter from the Hon. William Ellery, Esq., to E.S. dated Aug. 20th. 1781 addressed to [Ezra Stiles], [ca. 1781 August 20].

Describes the design of a new still and includes illustrations.
Note: Contemporary note on back of illustration: "Meeting Aug. 13. To enquire into the state of the Hopkinton fund respecting the Grammar School in Cambridge".

Creator:  Ellery, William, 1727-1820

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Page 01-3

“An Account of the Proceedings of the Company sent by the General Court of Massachusetts to observe the Solar Eclipse at Penobscot on 27 Oct. 1780,” [ca. 1781].

Records the journey of the company, observation of the eclipse, and includes thermometer and dew measurements.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821

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Page 01-4

Letter from Samuel Deane to Samuel Williams, 1780 October 28; Gorham, [MA].

Submits observations of a solar eclipse occurring October 27, 1780.

Creator:  Deane, Samuel, 1733-1814; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-5

Letter from Ezra Stiles to Caleb Gannett, 1780 November 3; Yale College, [CT].

Submits observations of a solar eclipse occurring October 27, 1780. Includes postscript nomination of Chevalier Francois Jean Chastellux for membership in the Academy.

Creator:  Stiles, Ezra, 1727-1795; elected 1781.
Note: Chastellux was elected as an FHM in 1781.

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Page 01-6

Letter from [Ezra Stiles] to [Caleb Gannett], [ca. November 1780].

Describes the Kesey Grist Mill. Includes sketch of mill.
Note: Stiles provided descriptions of the Kelsey grist mill to Benjamin Franklin and le Chevalier de Chastellux in October 1780 (The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles: Mar. 14, 1776-Dec. 31, 1781; pp. 473-474). Contemporary note attributes sketch of the mill to Ezra Stiles.

Creator:  [Stiles, Ezra, 1727-1795]; elected 1781.

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Page 01-7

“A Chirurgical Case of a Ball lodged in a wounded Soldier” addressed to Benjamin Lincoln, 1782.

Concerns injuries of John Conway, a British soldier injured at Bennington in 1777, caused by a musket ball that remained in his leg. Describes Binney's attempts to treat the injuries.
Note: annotated with an alternate title on back page. Binney was the author of a similar paper published in Memoirs, Vol. 1, (1783), pp. 544-545.

Creator:  Binney, Barnabus, 1751-1787.

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Page 01-7v

“Observations of the Lunar Eclipse 11 Nov. 1780, made at Portsmo[uth], NH,” [ca. 1780].

Includes initial measurements from Mssrs. Sparhawk, King, Adams, and Langdon; end measurements from Mssrs Woodward, King, Adams, and Slade.

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Page 01-8

Letter from James Lovell to James Bowdoin, 1780 December 9.

Encloses new publication on cement and masonry.
Note: Publication is not present.

Creator:  Lovell, James, 1737-1814.

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Page 01-9

Letter from Joseph Greenleaf to James Bowdoin, 1781 January 1; Boston.

Expresses pleasure at establishment of Academy. Describes the situation and chemical composition of stones found in Brookfield, Massachusetts.

Creator:  Greenleaf, Joseph, 1720-1809

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Page 01-10

Letter from A. B. to James Bowdoin, 1781 January 30.

Gives observations on the Aurora Borealis, seen a few nights past.

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Page 01-11

Letter from “A poor countryman” to James Bowdoin, 1781 February.

In response to a “Request of the Society in the paper of last Monday,” gives an account of the darkness of May 19, 1780.

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Page 01-12

Letter from Joseph Greenleaf to James Bowdoin, 1781 May 28; Boston.

Describes experiments in extracting minerals from stones located near Brookfield, Massachusetts. Invites members of the Academy to visit area and use the resources he has gathered.

Creator:  Greenleaf, Joseph, 1720-1810

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Page 01-13

“An Account of a curious & singular appearance of the Aurora Borealis, on the 27 of March, 1781,” [ca. 1781 March].

Gives Mr. Mellon’s account of an aurora borealis on March 27, 1781, as well as further accounts of one that occurred in 1730.

Creator:  Gannett, Caleb, 1745-1818; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-14

Letter from George Sparhawk to Caleb Gannett, 1781 June 4; Barre, [MA].

Forwards specimens of “mineral or fossil substances,” and asks for assistance from Academy in identifying additional minerals. Postscript notes a tree in New Hampshire called the Balm of Gilead.

Creator:  Sparhawk, George

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Page 01-15

Letter from Daniel Little to Caleb Gannett, 1781 August 7; Wells, [MA].

Notes a rise of the culture of Siberian wheat in America. Encloses account sent to him by John Furnald on the same subject.

Creator:  Little, Daniel, 1724-1801; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-16

Extract from the Letter which accompanied the first Siberian Wheat Sent to America addressed to [Caleb Gannett], 1781 August 4; Portsmouth, [NH].

Copies directions to sow Siberian wheat, sent to him by Capt. Mark Duckett, ca. 1775. Certifies that the gallon of Siberian wheat he received from Duckett in 1775 was the first to be brought to this country.

Creator:  Furnald, John

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Page 01-17

Letter from [Benjamin Lincoln], [ca. 1781 August 8].

Recounts an aurora borealis viewed on August 8, 1781 in Berkshire County.

Creator:  [Lincoln, Benjamin, 1733-1810]; elected 1781

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Page 01-18

Letter from Edward Wigglesworth to Caleb Gannett, 1781 August 14; Cambridge, [MA].

Proposes a demographic study of New England, as well to continue barometrical and thermometrical observation.

Creator:  Wigglesworth, Edward, 1732-1794; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-19

Letter from William Gordon to James Bowdoin, 1781 August 21; Jamaica Plain, [MA].

Recounts experiments with Siberian Wheat. Special attention to fertilizer.

Creator:  Gordon, William, 1728-1807

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Page 01-20

Letter from William Gordon to James Bowdoin, 1781 August 29; Jamaica Plain, [MA].

Writes of value of Orchilla Weed as export. Includes excerpt from, “Captain Glas in his history of the Canary Islands… p.196”.

Creator:  Gordon, William, 1728-1807

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Page 01-21

Letter from Samuel West to James Bowdoin, 1781 September 3; Dartmouth, [MA].

Describes importance of “chymistry” and new method for manufacturing vessels for use in chemical experiments. Proposes Dr. Danforth for membership in the Academy.

Creator:  West, Samuel; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-21v

[Paper wrapper], [ca. 1809 October 31].

“Amer. Academy. These Papers are principally Historical; and, if not suitable for the Memoirs of the Academy, may, if allowed, be a very acceptable present to the Historical Society”.
Note: Written on verso of fragment of an invitation to a special meeting of the Academy, dated Oct. 31, 1809.
Notation in pencil: “The above tied around the 4 letters to be found on pages 22, 71 & 73”.

Creator:  Holmes, Abiel, 1763-1837; elected 1803.

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Page 01-22

Letter from Ebenezer Hazard to James Bowdoin, 1781 November 20; Philadelphia.

In response to Academy request for reports on population of various states, sends figures for Rhode Island, as reported by Gov. Hopkins of Rhode Island in 1755.
Note: Included with a wrapper written on verso of fragment of an invitation to a special meeting of the Academy, dated Oct. 31, 1809.
Notation in pencil: “The above tied around the 4 letters to be found on pages 22, 71 & 73”.

Creator:  Hazard, Ebenezer, 1744-1817; elected 1781.

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Page 01-23

Letter from Caleb Gannett, [ca. 1782 January].

Responds to an essay by Dr. Beardsly read at a recent Academy meeting. Mentions the work of Dr. Joseph Priestley on the subject of putrid air and recounts illness and treatment among American troops lodged in Cambridge. Concludes with the encouragement for national meteorological observations.
Note: Dr. Beardsley is likely Beardsley, Ebenezer, ca. 1738-ca. 1790.

Creator:  Gannett, Caleb, 1745-1818; Charter Member, 1780.

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Page 01-24

Description of an unusual appearance of parhelia [sun dogs], 1782 January 31; New London, [CT].

Describes appearance of parhelia, or sun dogs. Includes two illustrations.

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Page 01-25

“No. of Inhabitants on Rhode Island in 1730 and 1774” addressed to Caleb Gannett, 1782 February 14; Providence, [RI].

In response to request from Rev. Mr. Wigglesworth. Encloses table of the number of inhabitants on Rhode Island in 1730 and 1774.

Creator:  West, Benjamin, 1730-1813; elected 1781.
Note: this is Benjamin West, astronomer, educator, and businessman from Providence, not the painter Benjamin West.

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Page 01-26

“An Account of the Number of Inhabitants in the State of Rhode Island, [1730 and June 1774]” addressed to [Caleb Gannett], [1782 February 14]; [Providence, RI].

Charts demographic information in Rhode Island for the years 1730 and 1774.

Creator:  [West, Benjamin, 1730-1813]; elected 1781

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Page 01-27

Letter from George Sparhawk to Caleb Gannett, 1782 July 25; Barre, [MA].

Thanks Gannett for acknowledging receipt of previous gift of minerals, offers to send specimens of chalk.

Creator:  Sparhawk, George

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Page 01-28

Letter from William Hickling to Caleb Gannett, 1782 August 1; Castle Island, [Boston].

Gives specific instruction on the placement of a vent for more rapid and safer discharge. Refers to illustration [not present].

Creator:  Hickling, William, 1742-1790

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Page 01-29a

“Memoire. Birdgras ou Graine d’Oiseau ainsi appellée parce qu’elle sur apporté par des oiseaux de proye dans les Virginie et Nouvelle Angleterre où l’on la cultive aujourd’huy” addressed to James Bowdoin, [ca. 1782 December 20].

On bird grass, called because it was brought by birds of prey in Virginia and New England. Includes draft of James Bowdoin’s reply, dated December 21, 1781.
Annotated: “This Memoire in French was delivered to Mr. Bowdoin by Mons. Aboville a Brigad General in the French Army Decr. 20 1782: to be laid before the American Academy.”

Creator:  Aboville, Marie François, comte de, 1730-1817.

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Page 01-29b

Draft reply, 1782 December 21; Boston.

Speculates on the situation of planted apple trees, forwarding an essay on the subject. Relates the discovery of a new star, heard of from Dr. Price, and asks if Aboville knows its location.
Annotated: “This Memoire in French was delivered to Mr. Bowdoin by Mons. Aboville a Brigad General in the French Army Decr. 20 1782: to be laid before the American Academy.”

Creator:  Bowdoin, James, 1726-1790; Charter Member, 1780.

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Page 01-30

“The Credit, of the late prevailing Practice and Success of Inoculation for the Small Pox, justly claimed for Boston in New England,” [ca. 1783 June 14]; [Boston].

Describes work of Cotton Mather on smallpox in the 1720s.

Creator:  [Mather, Samuel, 1706-1785]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-31

Letter from Jonathan Balch to James Bowdoin, 1783 May 24; Boston.

Presents model and description of a miniature pump engine. Includes draft response of James Bowdoin.

Creator:  Balch, Jonathan

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Page 01-32

Letter from Ezra Stiles to Caleb Gannett, 1783 June 20; Yale College, [CT].

Forwards a dissertation by Ebenezer Beardsley on Hydrocephalus Internus.

Creator:  Stiles, Ezra, 1727-1795; elected 1781

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Page 01-33

Letter from Ebenezer Beardsley to Caleb Gannett, 1783 June 6; New Haven, [CT].

As previous observations on dysentery were well received, encloses "Case of Hydrocephalus Internus".

Creator:  Beardsley, Ebenezer, ca. 1738-ca. 1790

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Page 01-34

"Case of Hydrocephalus Internus" addressed to Caleb Gannett, 1783 June 20; [New Haven, CT].

Describes symptoms and treatment of a 5-year old girl who suffered from Hydrocephalus Internus. Includes observations on dissection.

Creator:  Beardsley, Ebenezer, ca. 1738-ca. 1790

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Page 01-35

Letter from John Payson to Manasseh Cutler, 1783 June 30; Fitchburg, [MA].

Replies to request to provide samples and describe stones and minerals in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Notes in particular an area called Pearl Hill.

Creator:  Payson, John

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Page 01-36

Letter from A. L. to James Bowdoin, 1783 July 24; [Portsmouth].

Describes method of planting and raising potatoes; notes effect of Revolution on his finances.

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Page 01-37

Letter from Frederick St. John, Lord Bolingbroke, undated.

Remarks on medical observations in an unidentified work of his on mercury. Argues mercury works by its 'virtue', not mechanically.

Creator:  Bolingbroke, Frederick St. John, Viscount, 1734-1787?

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Page 01-38

Letter from Joseph Hamilton to James Bowdoin, 1783 October 22; Sharon, [CT].

Comments on objections made by an "anonymous Philosopher" in a "little philosophic Performance" previously sent to Bowdoin. Includes copy of an affidavit by Dr. William Wheeler, living near Hudson's River, on the use of calomel.

Creator:  Hamilton, Joseph

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Page 01-39

Letter from [Joseph Hamilton], [ca. 1783]; [Sharon, CT].

Objects to Lord Bolingbroke's writings on calomel and mercury, specifically the proposition that mercury works by its own 'virtue', not mechanically.

Creator:  [Hamilton, Joseph, 1739?-1805]

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Page 01-40

Affidavit addressed to James Bowdoin, 1783 September 20; Sharon, [CT].

Testifies on the treatment of a child with calomel. Witnessed by Daniel Griswold, Justice of the Peace of Litchfield County in Sharon, Connecticut.

Creator:  Smith, Cotton-Mather, 1731-1806

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Page 01-41

Affidavit addressed to James Bowdoin, undated; New York.

Testifies on the treatment of inflammatory fever with mercury. Witnessed by Daniel Griswold, Justice of the Peace of Litchfield County in Sharon, Connecticut.

Creator:  Chamberlain, John

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Page 01-42

Affidavit addressed to James Bowdoin, 1783 September 20; Sharon, [CT].

Testifies on the treatment of inflammatory fever with calomel. Witnessed by Daniel Griswold, Justice of the Peace of Litchfield County in Sharon, Connecticut.

Creator:  Smith, Simon

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Page 01-43

Letter from Samuel Deane, 1783 October 18; Falmouth, [MA].

Describes the benefits of raising indian corn, and includes hints and instructions on farming.

Creator:  Deane, Samuel, 1733-1814; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-44

Meteorological Observations made at Bradford, from 1771 to 1777.

Gives table of meteorological observations for six years; describes four experiments on evaporation.

Creator:  Williams, Samuel, 1743-1817; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-45

"The Effect of a Clay Poltis [sic] in a cancerous Case" addressed to [Stephen Sewall], [ca. 1783?]; [Wells, MA].

Describes symptoms and treatment for what is described as breast cancer of the wife of Nathan Wells of Wells, Maine.
Note: Marked in pencil "12 Nov 83." Note on back of document reads "Mr. Little, on Clay Poultice" – may be by Daniel Little of Wells, ME.

Creator:  [Little, Daniel, 1724-1801]; Charter Member, 1780.

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Page 01-46

Letter from Jonathan Williams, 1783 December 10; Nantes, [France].

Comments on associations formed for the benefit of humanity by the Encouragement of Science, and description of the development in France of human travel by air balloons.

Creator:  Williams, Jonathan, 1751-1815

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Page 01-47

"The Case of Mr. S. H. aged 40, of a good constitution, and a temperate man as to meals and drink, but a hard labourer; by profession a Shoe-maker and Tanner," 1784 January 5; [CT].

Report on medical case of "S. H.," and the successful treatment for "intense pain in his private parts".

Creator:  Hubbard, Leverett, 1725-1794.
Note: Leverett Hubbard, M.D. (1725-1794), a physician practicing in New Haven and the first President of the Connecticut Medical Society. Communication was delivered before the Medical Society of New Haven County.

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Page 01-48

"The Results of the meteorological Observations made at Cambridge, 1784," [ca. 1785 January]; Cambridge, [MA].

Records monthly barometer and thermometer readings, with some description of instruments used.

Creator:  Wigglesworth, Edward, 1732-1794; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-49

"Remarks on the Parallax of the Fixed Stars, occasioned by Mr. Herschel's observations on that subject published in the 72.d Volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London," 1784 March 31; Cambridge, [MA].

Presents and reviews favorably Mr. Herschel's method of ascertaining the Parallax of Fixed Stars; notes Mr. Herschel's idea that the sizes of stars are due to distance, not magnitude.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-50

Letter from William Croswell to Caleb Gannett, [ca. 1784 April 1].

Encloses his method for measuring frustums of pyramids, the bases of which are long squares, without the extraction of the square root.

Creator:  Croswell, William, 1760-1834

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Page 01-51

"A Rule for measuring Frustums of Pyramids whose Bases are Long Squares, without extracting the Square Root of the Product of the Areas" addressed to [Caleb Gannett], [ca. 1784 April 1].

Describes method and includes example.

Creator:  [Croswell, William, 1760-1834]

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Page 01-52

Letter from Joseph Brown to Ebenezer Storer, 1784 April 5; Providence, [RI].

Notifies that he has collected eight orders for the Academy's transactions on the subscription list given to him by Edward A. Holyoke. Submits a paper on the construction of chimneys. Describes a wooden still given to the author by Mr. Ellery, a copy of the one to be accounted in the Academy's transactions.
Note: Academy's transactions were published as Memoirs of the Academy.

Creator:  Brown, Joseph 1733-1785; elected 1781.

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Page 01-53

"On the Construction of Chimnies [sic]" addressed to [Ebenezer Storer], [ca. 1784 April 5]; [Providence, RI].

Gives theory for why chimneys excessively smoke; describes design and construction of an improved chimney. Includes endnotes.

Creator:  Brown, Joseph 1733-1785; elected 1781

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Page 01-54

Letter from Ezra Stiles to Joseph Willard, 1784 July 3; Yale College, [CT].

Encloses a description of pneumatic clock by Benjamin Hanks.

Creator:  Stiles, Ezra, 1727-1795; elected 1781

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Page 01-55

"A Description of a Pneumatic Clock," 1784 July 1; Litchfield, [CT].

Describes the construction of a tower clock was designed to automatically wind itself using a variance in air pressure.

Note: Designs follow on pp. 56-57.


Creator:  Hanks, Benjamin, 1755-1824.

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Page 01-56

"Mr. Hanks's pneumatic Clock," 1784 [July 1]; [Litchfield, CT].

Illustrates the mechanism of the Pneumatic Clock: Figures I and II.

Creator:  Hanks, Benjamin, 1755-1824

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Page 01-57

"Mr. Hanks's Pneumatic Clock. 1784," [1784 July 1]; [Litchfield, CT].

Illustrates the outside of a Pneumatic Clock.

Creator:  Hanks, Benjamin, 1755-1824

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Page 01-58

Letter from Cotton Tufts, [ca. 1784].

Translates a French memoir presented to Cotton Tufts in 1750 by John Adams, on the cultivation of "colzat" (Scotch cale).

Creator:  Tufts, Cotton, 1732-1815; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-59

Extract from an old manuscript on the history of "the first planting of the Massachusets", 1785 May 20; [Boston].

Richard Cranch transcribes a page from an undated manuscript found in the Library of the old South Church which describes White Hills to the west of Saco.

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Page 01-60

"The result of meteorological observations made at Cambridge, 1784," [ca. 1785]; Cambridge, [MA].

Records monthly barometer and thermometer readings, with some description of instruments used.

Creator:  Gannett, Caleb, 1745-1818; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-61

Letter from Benjamin Guild to James Bowdoin, 1785 August 24; Boston.

Comments on agriculture, animal husbandry, climate, geography, and their relationship to commerce; importance of American Academy in promoting and encouraging commerce.

Creator:  Guild, Benjamin, 1749-1792; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-62

Letter from Samuel West, 1785 September 19; Dartmouth.

Describes the work by 'Dr. Logan' of Pennsylvania on the value of minerals at Gay Head on Martha's Vineyard; and on the author's experiments to extract fresh water from salt.

Creator:  West, Samuel, 1731-1807; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-63

Letter from Edward Wigglesworth to Joseph Willard, 1785 October 6; Cambridge, [MA].

Presents comparative life expectancies between the clergy and other classes of men.

Creator:  Wigglesworth, Edward, 1732-1794; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-64

"Darkness in Canada, in October 1785" addressed to James Bowdoin, 1785 December 30; Roxbury, [MA].

Provides meteorological observations for October 9, 15, and 16 after having read an article on a weather phenomenon which occurred in Canada on those days. Encloses article published in the Independent Chronicle, December 22, 1785.
Note: Article referenced was published in the Independent Chronicle, December 22, 1785.

Creator:  Heath, William.

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Page 01-65

"Some Particulars of the Phenomenon in the Province of Canada, in the month of October, 1785, as published in the Independent Chronicle at Boston, December 22nd" addressed to [James Bowdoin], [ca. 1785 December 30]; [Roxbury, MA].

Accounts from Quebec and Montreal on an "uncommon darkness" that occurred on October 9, 15, and 16, 1785.

Creator:  Heath, William

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Page 01-66

"Account of a Skeleton of a Large Animal, found near Hudson's River" addressed to the President of the American Academy, 1785 December; Boston.

Recounts discovery in 1780 near the Walkill river in New York, of the skeleton of a large animal.

Creator:  Annan, Robert, 1742-1819

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Page 01-67

"Observations on the effects of light on vegetation," 1786 January 25; Milton, [MA].

Gives the state of conjecture on the importance of light for plants. Recounts a story of a potato vine in a cellar growing twenty feet towards a hole permitting light.

Creator:  Warren, James, 1726-1808; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-68

Letter from Samuel West to James Bowdoin, 1786 January 27; Dartmouth, [MA].

Describes failed experiments conducted with Captain William Claghorn to replicate the results of Mr. Allen in extracting fresh water from salt.

Creator:  West, Samuel, 1731-1807; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-69

An Extract of a Letter from the Rev'd Richard Price D D to the Revd Doctor Willard, President of the University &c addressed to Joseph Willard, 1786 March 18; Newington Green, [London].

Reviews Dr. Wigglesworth's tables on the life expectancy of men in different professions.

Creator:  Price, Richard, 1723-1791; elected 1782, FHM

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Page 01-70

Letter from Samuel Freeman to James Bowdoin, 1786 March 24; Falmouth, [MA].

Informs that "the unusual appearance in the Heavens the night before last" in Falmouth matches a description of the same phenomenon in Boston.
Note: Likely refers to the Aurora Borealis.

Creator:  Freeman, Samuel, 1743-1831.

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Page 01-71

Letter from Samuel H. Parsons to Ezra Stiles, 1786 April 27; Middletown, [CT].

Describes travels in Ohio and exploration of Big Bone Creek; encloses specimen of an animal tooth; describes ruins of fortifications. Encloses manuscript drawing of fortifications on the Muskingum River.
Note: Included with a wrapper written on verso of fragment of an invitation to a special meeting of the Academy, dated Oct. 31, 1809.
Notation in pencil: "The above tied around the 4 letters to be found on pages 22, 71 & 73".

Creator:  Parsons, Samuel Holden, 1737-1789.

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Page 01-72

Drawing of fortifications on the Muskingum River, Ohio addressed to Ezra Stiles, 1786 April 27; [Middletown, CT].

Illustrates the fortification on the Muskingum River with a legend. Includes extracts of letters sent to Parsons describing (burial) mounds at ruins. Contemporary note from Ezra Stiles written from Yale College dated August 12, 1786 sends material to Academy.
Note: Included with a wrapper written on verso of fragment of an invitation to a special meeting of the Academy, dated Oct. 31, 1809.
Notation in pencil: "The above tied around the 4 letters to be found on pages 22, 71 & 73".

Creator:  Parsons, Samuel Holden, 1737-1789.

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Page 01-73A

Extract of a Letter from Major Finney commanding Officer at the Great Miami Apl 1st 1786 addressed to [Ezra Stiles], [1786 April 27]; [Middletown, CT].

In a letter to Samuel H. Parsons, describes the discovery and situation of grave mounds.
Note: Included with a wrapper written on verso of fragment of an invitation to a special meeting of the Academy, dated Oct. 31, 1809.
Notation in pencil: "The above tied around the 4 letters to be found on pages 22, 71 & 73".

Creator:  Finney, Walter.

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Page 01-73B

Extract of a Letter from Capt Heart Dated at Fort Harmer on ye Muskingum Apl 12th 1786 addressed to [Ezra Stiles], [1786 April 27]; [Middletown, CT].

In a letter to Samuel H. Parsons, notes specific composition of grave mounds.
Note: Included with a wrapper written on verso of fragment of an invitation to a special meeting of the Academy, dated Oct. 31, 1809.
Notation in pencil: "The above tied around the 4 letters to be found on pages 22, 71 & 73".

Creator:  Heart, Jonathan.

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Page 01-74

"A Dissertation upon Potatos [sic]," [ca. 1786].

Accounts the history of raising potatoes in America; comments on growing conditions.

Creator:  Hale, Samuel, 1718-1807; elected 1784

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Page 01-75

"Minutes of the progressive Growth and Maturity of the most useful Vegetables at Penobscot &c with some occasional observations, in the Year 1785," [1785].

Notes the growth of such as red clover, flax, garden peas, indian corn, potatoes, barley, etc. Includes description of Native American agricultural techniques.

Creator:  [Little, Daniel, 1724-1801]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-76

Letter from William Baylies to President of the Academy, 1786 July 1; Dighton, [MA].

At the request of Samuel West, describes agriculture and geography of Gay head, Martha's Vineyard.

Creator:  Baylies, William, 1743-1826; elected 1789

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Page 01-77

Letter from Samuel Freeman to James Bowdoin, 1786 July 11; Falmouth, [MA].

Describes Aurora Borealis seen on March 22, 1786. Includes excerpts from letters between author and James Boyson, and from a "Chston paper".

Creator:  Freeman, Samuel, 1743-1831

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Page 01-78

Letter from I. M. to Joseph Willard, [ca. 1786].

Encloses description of a "simple & easy Method, unattended with a logarithmetical Calculation…" to take the height of an object.

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Page 01-79

"A mechanical Method of taking the Height of an Object" addressed to [Joseph Willard], [ca. 1786].

Explains how to find the height of an object without using equations.

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Page 01-80

Letter from John Gardiner to James Bowdoin, 1786 September 16; Beacon Street, Boston.

Encloses description ferry boat to transport goods across a river, using the current only. Includes illustrations. Also encloses an improved model of a granary.

Creator:  Gardiner, John

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Page 01-81

[Drawing of a ferry-boat] addressed to James Bowdoin, 1786 September 16; [Beacon Street, Boston].

Represents the means by which to transport goods across a river, using the current only.

Creator:  Gardiner, John, 1737-1793

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Page 01-82

Letter from Samuel Parsons to Joseph Willard, 1786 October 2; Middletown, CT.

Writes to correct previously published reports of his observations; describes travels in the "Western Country," especially natural history, antiquities, and social practices such as childbirth and divorce.

Creator:  Parsons, Samuel Holden, 1737-1789

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Page 01-83

Letter from Daniel Little to James Bowdoin, 1786 October 16; Wells, [MA].

Describes his travels among the Penobscot Indians, with special attention to religious practices and language; encloses "Words of the indian Language, written as pronounced by the Penobscot Tribe".

Creator:  Little, Daniel, 1724-1801; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-84

"Words of the indian Language, written as pronounced, by the Penobscot Tribe" addressed to [James Bowdoin], [1786 October 16]; [Wells, MA].

Charts the words, substantives, personal pronouns, verbs and several phrases of the Penobscot Tribe.

Creator:  [Little, Daniel, 1724-1801]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-85

"History of a Case of incisted Dropsy, with a dissection of the several Cysts" addressed to James Bowdoin, 1786 November 25; Boston.

Describes ailment and treatment of a woman, aged 34, and dissection upon her death. Sends cyst and substance contained within it, "for the inspection and consideration of the Members of the Academy".

Creator:  Cheever, Abijah, 1760-1843

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Page 01-86

Letter from Winthrop Sargent to James Bowdoin, 1787 January; Boston.

Lists the trees found northwest of the Ohio River, with some description.
Annotated: "The paragraphs are noted with this mark, [paragraph symbol]. The orthography must not be altered".

Creator:  Sargent, Winthrop, 1753-1820; elected 1788.

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Page 01-87

Letter from N[icholas] Garrison [Jr.] to John Gardiner, 1787 January 4; New Port.

At the request of James Gardiner, describes the manner in which a ferry boat at Bethlehem uses a rope or chain to accommodate the width and current of the river.

Creator:  [Garrison, Nicholas, Jr.].
Note: Possibly Nicholas Garrison Jr., a sailor and mapmaker from near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

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Page 01-88

Letter from John Gardiner to James Bowdoin, 1787 January 25; Boston.

Encloses letter from Mr. Garrison describing ferry at Bethlehem.

Creator:  Gardiner, John, 1737-1793

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Page 01-89

Letter from Alex Shepard, Jr. to Joseph Willard, 1787 January 30; Newton, [MA].

Gives account of the raising of buck wheat over several years.

Creator:  Shepard, Alexander, Jr., 1741-1788

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Page 01-90

"Hard Waters softened by a Farinaceous Soap, with the Process for making the Same," 1787 May; Wells, [MA].

Describes the situation and property of a well and means by which the well's water is softened with farinaceous soap.

Creator:  [Little, Daniel, 1724-1801]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-91

Letter from Jabez Holden to Benjamin Guild, 1787 March 12; Sandisfield, [MA].

Describes the topography of Sandisfield. Additionally remarks on the health of citizens, the occurrence of the Aurora Borealis, and general scientific research.

Creator:  Holden, Jabez, [1721-1798]

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Page 01-92

Letter from Noah Atwater to Joseph Willard, 1787 July 2; Westfield, [MA].

Charts in rain and snow, the precipitation in Westfield for 1786, after brief description. Compares. Encloses his account for 1781 as a comparison for meteorological observations published for 1781 in Memoirs.

Creator:  Atwater, Noah, 1752-1802; elected 1788

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Page 01-93

Letter from Samuel Freeman to Caleb Gannett, 1787 July 26; Portland, [MA].

Encloses an almanac designed to fit into the case of a watch for "those whose eyes are not worse yet than mine".

Creator:  Freeman, Samuel, 1743-1831

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Page 01-94

"A New-Contrived Watch Almanack for the year of our Lord 1787" addressed to [Caleb Gannett], [1787 July 26]; [Portland, MA].

With detailed explanation, presents figures for an almanac designed to fit into the case of a watch.

Creator:  [Freeman, Samuel, 1743-1831]

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Page 01-95

"Method of doubling a cube geometrically," 1787 August 21; Cambridge, [MA].

Explains geometrical methods of finding any required series of mean proportionals between given extremes.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-96

"A Case in Surgery" addressed to Samuel Williams, [ca. 1788 March]; Westfield, [MA].

Encloses an account of a child treated after having been kicked in the head by a horse. Regrets he cannot send an account of a person who consumed great quantities of water.

Creator:  Mather, Samuel, 1706-1785; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-97

Letter from [Samuel] Mather to [Samuel Williams], 1788 March 3; Westfield, [MA].

Describes the severe wounds, symptoms, and treatment of a child who was kicked in the head by a horse in 1775.

Creator:  [Mather, Samuel, 1706-1785]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-98

"Meteorological Observations at Marietta for the months of September & October," [ca. 1788]; Marietta, [OH?].

Provides thermometer readings, winds, and weather observations for September 1788.
Note: Title on p. 98 applies to documents on pp. 98-99. Author is unknown.

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Page 01-99

"Meteorological Observations at Marietta for the months of September & October," [ca. 1788]; Marietta, [OH?].

Provides thermometer readings, winds, and weather observations for October 1788.

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Page 01-100

"Account of an inscribed Rock at Dighton in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts," accompanied with a drawing of the inscription, 1788 November 10; Cambridge, [MA].

Describes the Dighton rock located in the Taunton River and discusses consensus on the rock; encloses a drawing of the inscription.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-101

"Easy method of drawing an ellipsis with a description of the compasses used for that purpose," 1788 November 10; Cambridge, [MA].

Includes illustrations.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-102

Letter from Aaron Dexter, [ca. 1788].

Describes experiments with "Sal. Soda or what is commonly called Kelp ashes."

Creator:  Dexter, Aaron, 1750-1829; elected 1784

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Page 01-103

Letter from Samuel Blodget to James Bowdoin, 1788 November 15; Haverhill, [MA].

Describes the author's newly invented hydrometer, its reported significance, and its usefulness in the commerce and standards of liquor; includes tables of two "merchantable" types of rum.

Creator:  Blodget, Samuel, 1724-1807

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Page 01-104

Letter from Samuel Perkins to James Bowdoin, 1789 January 1; Norwich, [CT].

Describes new method of finding longitude at sea; sent in response to request of Volume 1 of the Academy Memoirs for "communications of a literary or philosophical kind."

Creator:  Perkins, Samuel, 1767-1850

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Page 01-105

"Meteorological Observations made at Waltham," [ca. 1789 January]; Waltham, [MA].

Two tables of thermometer readings, wind direction, and weather observations for 1787 and 1788.

Creator:  Cushing, Jacob, 1730-1809

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Page 01-106

Letter from John Churchman to James Bowdoin, 1789 April 17; Philadelphia.

Encloses printed copy of "J. Churchman's Address to the Members of The different learned Societies in Europe and America, in support of The Principles of the Magnetic Variation, and Their Application in determining the Longitude at Sea".

Creator:  Churchman, John, 1753-1805

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Page 01-107

"Proposals for Publishing, by John Churchman, Author of the Magnetic Atlas, A Dissertation on Gravitation: Containing Conjectures concerning the Cause of the several Kinds of Attraction" addressed to [James Bowdoin], 1791 May 12; Baltimore, [MD].

Describes the work to be published, including its premise and the conditions under which it will be published.

Creator:  Churchman, John, 1753-1805

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Page 01-108

"J. Churchman's Address to the Members of The different learned Societies in Europe and America, in support of The Principles of the Magnetic Variation, and Their Application in determining the Longitude at Sea; shewing werein What the learned doctor Euler published on this Subject at Berlin, was deficient," addressed to James Bowdoin, [ca. 1789]; [Philadelphia].

Creator:  Churchman, John, 1753-1805

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Page 01-109

Letter from John Rogers to James Bowdoin, 1789 May; Leominster, [MA].

Provides observation so the efficiency of land use when the ground is rolled and on curing hay according to the method of Dr. Swift.

Creator:  Rogers, John

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Page 01-110

Letter from Isaac Story to James Bowdoin, 1781 May 20; Marblehead, [MA].

Describes the attitude of people in America toward the clergy; includes statistics gathered on longevity.

Creator:  Story, Isaac, 1749-1816

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Page 01-111

Letter from Samuel Haven to Manasseh Cutler, 1789 June 7; Portsmouth, [NH].

Sends samples of corn used to dye cloth, noting "utility to us in the infancy of our manufacturies"; includes samples of "Federal Colours".

Creator:  Haven, Samuel, 1727-1806

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Page 01-112

"Federal Colours" addressed to [Manasseh Cutler], [1789 June 7]; [Portsmouth, NH].

Samples of cloth dyed in federal colors fixed by various methods.

Creator:  [Haven, Samuel, 1727-1806]

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Page 01-113

"Method of Preventing Blasts and Canker-worms" addressed to Joseph Willard, 1789 July 3; Ashburnham, [MA].

Describes methods of protecting crops from blight, particularly those affecting orchards.

Creator:  Cushing, John, 1744-1823

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Page 01-114

Letter from Winthrop Sargent to Joseph Willard, 1789 July 6; Territory of the United States North West of the River Ohio.

Corrects the information previously sent to the Academy on ruins near the Muskingum River. Includes sketch of "Head of the Indian Arrow".
Note: Contemporary annotation indicates letter was sent to Cambridge, England by mistake.

Creator:  Sargent, Winthrop, 1753-1820; elected 1788.

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Page 01-115

Extract of a letter from William Baylies Esq, dated Dighton 27 July 1789, to James Winthrop Esq., with a copy of the Dighton inscription. Communicated by Mr. Winthrop addressed to James Winthrop, [ca. 1789 July 27].

In a letter to James Winthrop, reiterates his pleasure upon election to the Academy. Speculates as to the bird (cassowary) he believes some of the markings on the Dighton Rock represent; encloses copy of the inscription.

Creator:  Baylies, William

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Page 01-116

Letter from Nehemiah Williams to Caleb Gannett, 1789 August 5; Brimfield, [MA].

Explains why a letter, sent to Williams November 27, 1788 from Major Samuel Hitchcock, was delayed. Notes the account has been confirmed by another person. Extract of letter sent to Williams describes frogs in New York discovered in the earth seemingly coming alive again, with attention paid to situation of the land where frogs were found.

Creator:  Williams, Nehemiah, 1749-1796; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 01-117

Letter from Noah Atwater to Joseph Willard, 1789 August 15; Westfield, [MA].

Describes "a few natural curiosities" (mineral springs), found in western territory which New York state sold to Messrs. Gorham & Phelps.
Note: The Phelps and Gorham Purchase was the purchase in 1788 of the pre-emptive right to some 6,000,000 acres (24,000 km²) of land in western New York State for $1,000,000.

Creator:  Atwater, Noah, 1752-1802; elected 1788.

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Page 01-118

Letter from William Frobisher to James Bowdoin, 1789 August 17; Boston.

Encloses a paper on a new method of making potash with samples produced through such a method; includes illustration of a chimney funnel.
Note: one side of one insert.

Creator:  Frobisher, William.

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Page 01-119

Letter from [unknown], [ca. 1789].

Encourages the manufacture of potash. Notes the contemporary advances made in its production.

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Page 01-120

Letter from John Cushing to Eliphalet Pearson, 1789 December 9; Ashburnham, [MA].

Replies to letter of November 12, 1789. Describes further experiments to destroy worms blighting crops.

Creator:  Cushing, John, 1744-1823

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Page 01-121

"Account of a Stone Bust, supposed to have been an Indian god," 1790.

Describes bust found in East Hartford, Connecticut and deposited in the Museum of Yale College in 1788; includes account of religious ceremony associated with the stone told to the author by Eliphalet Williams of East Hartford.

Creator:  Stiles, Ezra, 1727-1795; elected 1781

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Page 01-122

Letter from Samuel Latham Mitchill to James Bowdoin, 1790 January 16; New York.

Encloses memoir concerning the circular shape of rainbows.

Creator:  Mitchill, Samuel L. (Samuel Latham), 1764-1831

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Page 01-123

"An Enlargement of Sir Isaac Newton's Proposition concerning the Semicircular Shapes of Rainbows" addressed to [James Bowdoin], [1790 January 16]; [New York].

Reports observations challenging held beliefs on rainbows.

Creator:  [Mitchill, Samuel L. (Samuel Latham), 1764-1831]

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Page 01-124

"A Letter on the Retreat of Swallows and the Torpid State of certain Animals in Winter" addressed to Manasseh Cutler, 1790 April 3; Brunswyke, Ulster County [New York].

Confirms Mr. Hawthorn's account sent to the Academy of swallows being found in the hollows of trees, relating a similar account with description of the birds; reports on bears in hibernation.

Creator:  Bruyn, Severyn Tenhout, 1749-1794

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Page 01-125

Letter from Isaac Pinto to Ezra Stiles, 1790 April 14; New York.

Responds to request for help translating Hebrew inscriptions. Discusses the Sacred Name allegedly being found in some copies of the Law.

Creator:  Pinto, Isaac, 1720-1791

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Page 01-126

Letter from John Vinall to James Bowdoin, 1790 May 23; Boston.

Describes experiments using an electrical machine to treat burns.

Creator:  Vinall, John, 1736-1823

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Page 01-[127]

Index [A-Z].

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Volume 2, 1785-1810

Page 02-1

"A Table Shewing the Probabilities of the Duration; the Decrement and the Expectation of Human Life at Dover, New Hampshire; Formed From the Rev'd . Mr. Jeremy Belknap's accurate Bill of Morality for eighteen Years, viz, from 1767 to 1784," 1785 May; Cambridge, [MA].

Table gives probabilities of expectation of life for ages 0-100; notes Mr. Belknap did not include data points for men who died in the service of their country, nor did he record births.

Creator:  Wigglesworth, Edward, 1732-1794; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-2

"XXVI. Observations on a singular natural production in which one part appears to be a plant & the other an insect accompanied with a specimen."

Describes an insect turning into a plant; provides explanatory theory.

Creator:  [Cutler, Manasseh, 1742-1823]; elected 1781

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Page 02-3

Letter from Nathan Read to James Bowdoin, 1790 June 3; Salem, [MA].

Encloses a description of a cronometer powered by attraction only, requests that the paper be presented at the next meeting of the Academy.

Creator:  Read, Nathan, 1759-1849; elected 1791

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Page 02-4

"Description of a proposed cronometer to be kept going by the power of attraction only" addressed to [James Bowdoin], [1790 June 3]; Salem, [MA].

Describes Figures 2, 3, 4, and 5 followed by a description of how the cronometer operates. In the methodology, describes the use of Mr. Smeaton's table of the expansion & contraction of metals. Notes barrel wheels are similar to Mr. Hanks' 'air clock'.

Creator:  [Read, Nathan, 1759-1849]; elected 1791

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Page 02-5

Letter from [Nathan Read] to [James Bowdoin], [1790 June 3]; [Salem, MA].

Figures 1-5 illustrates a clock and its parts.

Creator:  [Read, Nathan, 1759-1849]; elected 1791

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Page 02-6

Letter from Noah Webster to Joseph Willard, 1790 June 10; Hartford, [CT].

Describes experiment to determine whether dew rises from the ground or descends from the air.

Creator:  Webster, Noah, 1758-1843; elected 1799

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Page 02-7

Letter from Samuel Latham Mitchill to James Bowdoin, 1790 June 16; New York.

Encloses observations on rainbows.

Creator:  Mitchill, Samuel L. (Samuel Latham), 1764-1831; elected 1797

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Page 02-8

"Meteorological Remarks and Conjectures" addressed to [James Bowdoin], [1790 June 16]; [New York].

Observations on rainbows known as sun-dogs, mock-suns, and weather balls; includes illustrations.

Creator:  Mitchill, Samuel L. (Samuel Latham), 1764-1831; elected 1797

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Page 02-9

Copy of a letter from Dr. Dexter to Dr. Bowdoin on the Subject of Mr. Isaacks's Letter addressed to James Bowdoin, 1790 June 18; Boston.

Comments on a letter from Isaacks on the desalination of water; presents questions for Isaacks to answer.

Creator:  Dexter, Aaron, 1750-1829; elected 1784

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Page 02-10

Draft addressed to Jacob Isaacks, 1790 June 19; Boston.

Responds to earlier letter of Isaacks' enclosing findings and certificate endorsed by a number of people on Isaacks' desalination method; encloses several questions from Dr. Dexter, that if answered satisfactorily and endorsed further by the same persons, would be presented at special meeting of the Academy.

Creator:  Bowdoin, James, 1752-1811; elected 1786

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Page 02-11

Letter from Jacob Issacks to James Bowdoin, 1790 June 23; New Port, [RI].

Responds to James Bowdoin's letter of June 19, 1790. Discusses a possible demonstration of his desalination method to the Academy, at a cost of 50 dollars.

Creator:  Isaacks, Jacob

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Page 02-12

Letter from Jacob Isaacks to Aaron Dexter, 1790 July 23; New Port, [RI].

Responds to letter from Dexter of July 1, 1790, enclosing certifications from Senter and Tillinghast on his desalination method which answers questions posed to Isaacks.

Creator:  Isaacks, Jacob

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Page 02-13A

Draft addressed to Jacob Isaacks.

At the request of James Bowdoin, writes to Isaacks reiterating Bowdoin's request for answers posed before a demonstration of Isaacks' desalination method is planned.

Creator:  Dexter, Aaron, 1750-1829; elected 1784

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Page 02-13B

Certificate, 1790 July 22; Newport, RI.

Validates that the desalination method of Jacob Isaacks removed salt from ten pints of sea water in two hours.

Creator:  Senter, Isaac, 1753?-1799; Tillinghast, Nicholas

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Page 02-14

Copy addressed to [Jacob Isaacks], 1790 August 5; Boston.

Acknowledges receipt of letter enclosing certificate from Dr. Senter & Mr. Tillinghurst; notifies him of his intent to lay before the Academy Isaack's communication at the next statute meeting.

Creator:  Dexter, Aaron, 1750-1829; elected 1784

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Page 02-15

Letter from Jacob Isaacks to Aaron Dexter, 1790 August 10; Boston.

Responds to Dexter's letter of August 5, 1790, notifying him of necessary needs for the demonstration of his desalination method.

Creator:  Isaacks, Jacob

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Page 02-16

Draft addressed to Jacob Isaacks, 1790 August 28; Boston.

Notifies that a committee has been formed to make further inquiries into Isaacks' desalination method; requests Isaacks to make a demonstration in Newport for the committee.
Note: Likely a copy.

Creator:  Dexter, Aaron, 1750-1829; elected 1784.

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Page 02-17

Letter from William Bradford to Noah Atwater, 1790 September 9; Westfield, [MA].

States the common theory on the formation of hail; provides observation on the situation of clouds during hail storms that supports this theory.

Creator:  Bradford, William

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Page 02-18

Letter from Jacob Isaacks to Aaron Dexter and John Warren, 1790 September 14; Newport, [RI].

Replies to a letter of August 28 1790, lists what members of the Academy attended his demonstration of his desalination method, explaining why some felt it unnecessary to attend. Avails himself to further personal inquiries.

Creator:  Isaacks, Jacob

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Page 02-19

Letter from William Crosswell to Samuel Webber, 1790 October 28; Boston.

Encloses and describes tables for the Lunar Observation; requests they be read at next meeting of the Academy.

Creator:  Crosswell, William.

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Page 02-20

"An Account of certain new tables for find the longitude by the Lunar Observation" addressed to [Samuel Webber], [1790 October 28]; [Boston].

Describes a new method of finding the longitude by the apparent position of the moon.

Creator:  [Crosswell, William]

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Page 02-21

"A Letter on the Retreat of Swallows in Winter" addressed to Samuel Dexter, 1791 January 13; Marlborough, [MA].

Recounts the stories of several men who have found flights of dead swallows.

Creator:  Packard, Asa, 1758-1843.
Note: There are two possible Samuel Dexters to which this letter may be addressed: Samuel Dexter (elected 1791; 1726-1810) or Samuel Dexter (elected 1800; 1761-1816).

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Page 02-22

Letter from Noah Atwater to Eliphalet Pearson, 1791 January 28; Westfield, [MA].

Encloses and endorse William Bradford's letter to Noah Atwater on the formation of hail.

Creator:  Atwater, Noah, 1752-1802; elected 1788

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Page 02-23

Letter from Samuel Tenney to Jeremy Belknap, 1791 March 24; Exeter, [NH].

Expresses doubts on the accuracy of Sir Isaac Newton's theory of color; discusses theory that some "prismatic colours are also mere compounds."

Creator:  Tenney, Samuel, 1748-1816; elected 1791

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Page 02-24

"Observation of an annual eclipse of the Sun at Cambridge, April 3, 1791," [ca. 1791].

Provides observations of an eclipse with some description of instruments and methodology.

Creator:  Webber, Samuel, 1759-1810; elected 1789

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Page 02-25

Letter from Noah Atwater to Eliphalet Pearson, 1791 April 4; Westfield, [MA].

Presents tables of thermometer readings from December 1790 - March 1791.

Creator:  Atwater, Noah, 1752-1802; elected 1788

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Page 02-26

Letter from John Vinall to John Warren, 1791 May 20; Boston.

Responds to request made in Academy Memoirs to make observations on the variation of the magnetic needle. Encloses tables of observations of the variations, recorded from readings of an instrument made by him.

Creator:  Vinall, John (1736-1823)

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Page 02-27

"The following observations were made in Boston, upon the Variation of the Magnetic Needle," addressed to [John Warren], 1791 May 20; [Boston].

Gives observations for every hour between 8am-5pm for February 1 - April 30, 1791.

Creator:  Vinall, John (1736-1823)

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Page 02-28

Letter from William Croswell to Samuel Webber, 1791 January 22; Boston.

Gives proof including examples for resolving two cases in obliques spherical trigonometry. Transmittal letter notes it is an improvement since previously sent account of his tables.
Note: Transmittal letter was formerly included among unbound correspondence. Letter was sent to Mr. Webber and docketing "Read. 31. May. 1791". Minutes record only one paper sent by a Mr. Croswell read at that meeting. From the transmittal letter is the date of this communication provided.

Creator:  Crosswell, William.

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Page 02-29

"Respecting a house struck with lightning" addressed to John Clarke, 1791 June 30; Boston.

Describes "Mr. Sumner's house in Gold Lane", which was struck by lightning; encloses illustration.

Creator:  Greenleaf, Joseph, 1720-1810

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Page 02-30A


Validates observations on the variations of the compass.

Creator:  Metcalf, John

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Page 02-30B

Letter from [Joseph Greenleaf] to [John Clarke], [1791 June 30]; [Boston].

Diagrams property of house reportedly struck by lightning.

Creator:  [Greenleaf, Joseph, 1720-1810]

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Page 02-31

Letter from Isaac Story to Joseph Willard, 1791 October 29; Marblehead, [MA].

Describes the capture of a shellfish by Ebenezar Giles of Marble head; reports shellfish as measured at 4'6'' x 2'10'' and weighing 712 lbs after it was drained of blood.

Creator:  Story, Isaac, 1749-1816

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Page 02-32

Letter from John Churchman to Secretary of the Academy, 1791 November 18; New York.

Notes magnetic observations of Doctor Halley and Professor Euler; encloses a copy of "The Magnetic Atlas" or "Variation Chart," and calls for a system of international magnetic observations.

Creator:  Churchman, John, 1753-1805.

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Page 02-33

"E parvis ad magna."

Gives method for converting pounds to dollars and dollars to pounds and method for "determining the sum to be remitted by a factor to his employer".

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Page 02-34

"Table Comparée des probabilities de la view dans la Nouvelle Angleterre et en Europe" addressed to Ezra Styles, [ca. 1789]; [Cambridge, MA].

Includes extract from "Extrait de 'Nouveau Voyage les Etats -Unis de M. Warville' Volume 2d."; on back is written: "The expectation of life in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, deduced from the bills of Mortality on the Files of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in the Year 1789".

Creator:  Wigglesworth, Edward, 1732-1794; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-35

Letter from Isaac Story to Eliphalet Pearson, 1792 February 21; Marblehead, [MA].

Forwards the shell of the shellfish discussed in his letter of 1791 October 29.

Creator:  Story, Isaac

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Page 02-36

Letter from Edward Augustus Holyoke to Eliphalet Pearson, 1792 February 23; Salem, [MA].

Encloses a table of condensed meteorological observations of the past seven years for presentation to the Academy.

Creator:  Holyoke, Edward Augustus, 1728-1829; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-37

"Description of a new invented Steelyard" addressed to President of the American Academy, 1792 May 29; Boston.

"Designed to correct the errors of fraud and accident, to which those of the common kind are ever liable".
Note: Label with title attached with sealing wax to document.

Creator:  Dearborn, Benjamin, 1754-1838; elected 1794.

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Page 02-38

Letter from Oliver Fiske to Jeremy Belknap, 1792 August 13; Worcester, [MA].

Encloses description of the Mystery of the Dog.

Creator:  Fiske, Oliver, 1762-1837; elected 1810

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Page 02-38e

Letter from [Oliver Fiske] to [Jeremy Belknap], [1792 August 13]; [Worcester, MA].

Reports on the case of a dog nursing a litter of kittens.

Creator:  [Fiske, Oliver, 1762-1837]; elected 1810

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Page 02-39

"Rules for computing Apparent Time, the Altitude and Azimuth of celestial objects; & the Distance of places on the Globe."

Includes examples.

Creator:  Crosswell, William

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Page 02-40

"An Account of the Rains and Snows, fallen in Westfield" addressed to Eliphalet Pearson, 1793 May 4; Westfield, [MA].

Provides monthly average of precipitation for months January-December from data collected from 1786 January 1 - 1798 January 1.

Creator:  Atwater, Noah, 1752-1802; elected 1788

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Page 02-41

Letter from Benjamin Waterhouse, 1793 May 20; Cambridge, [MA].

Copies an excerpt of a case sent to author by Dr. Nathan Smith of Cornish to illustrate the dangers of treatments using calomel.

Creator:  Waterhouse, Benjamin, 1754-1846; elected 1795

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Page 02-42

"A curious phenomenon of vision. In a letter by Perez Fobes," 1793 August 21; Raynham, [MA].

Details the case of a man with telescopic vision.

Creator:  Fobes, Peres, 1742-1812; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-43

"Depression of a human stomach," 1793 August 26; Raynham, [MA].

Excerpt details the case of a 9 year old girl whose stomach was depressed by an "Unctuous Cullula" into a different position.

Creator:  Fobes, Peres, 1742-1812; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-44

Letter from John Taylor to the Vice-President of the United States [John Adams], 1794 January 1; Philadelphia.

Briefly gives the history of a type of wheat discovered in Virginia; describes experiments on planting the wheat in different soils.

Creator:  Taylor, John

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Page 02-45

Letter from John Taylor to the Vice-President of the United States [John Adams], 1794 March 11; Philadelphia.

In reference to a "Mr. Cutler's" letter, discusses the purchase and delivery of 500 bushels of the wheat discussed in previous correspondence; cannot recall from where the wheat was originally found. Describes it as a winter wheat, and the timing of planting in his experiments with it.

Creator:  Taylor, John

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Page 02-46

Letter from [Peres Fobes], [1794]; [Raynham, MA].

Describes the construction of his orrery, now completed; briefly discusses the effect of distance on objects and references Galileo's discoveries.

Creator:  [Fobes, Peres, 1742-1812]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-47

"Orrery and Pantometron," 1794 May 20; Raynham.

Discusses the value of experiments in philosophy and describes machines that might be used for this, including his own orrery and Pantometron.

Creator:  Fobes, Peres, 1742-1812; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-48

"The Description of the Pantometron, or universal mechanical measure," [ca. 1794?]

Describes instrument invented by him, "Designed to Illuminate, by actual experiments all that part of natural Philosophy, which relates to mechanical Motion".

Creator:  [Fobes, Peres, 1742-1812]; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-49

Description of a singular natural production, in which one part appears to be a Plant & the other an Insect, accompanied with a specimen.

Recounts story of an insect turning into a plant; surmises the explanation.

Creator:  Cutler, Manasseh, 1742-1823; elected 1781

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Page 02-50

Letter from Benjamin Dearborn to John Adams, 1794 August 19; Boston.

Describes his system of music notation for people who are blind. Includes list of notes and example of sheet music.

Creator:  Dearborn, Benjamin, 1754-1838; elected 1794

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Page 02-51

"A Bill of Mortality &c. for the East Precinct in Barnstable from January 1st 1793 to January 1st 1794."

Tabulates causes of death by month and age group for the year 1793 in the East Precinct of Barnstable.

Creator:  Miller, John, Jr.

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Page 02-52

Letter from Benjamin Dearborn to John Adams, 1794 November 12; Boston.

Presents a prototype of a thermoscope, an "instrument for determining the temperature of the Air, respecting Heat and Cold,".

Creator:  Dearborn, Benjamin, 1754-1838; elected 1794

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Page 02-53

"Mr. Joseph Pope's Description of An Orrery of his construction," 1794 November 12.

Describes his design for an orrery, first generally and then planet by planet. Contemporary note: "Mr. Pope's orrery was constructed and this account of it prepared before Dr. Herschel's discover of the two additional satellites of Saturn was announced".

Creator:  Pope, Joseph, 1746-1826; elected 1788

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Page 02-54

"A description of a New Orrery," [ca. 1794?]

Describes the design of an orrery.

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Page 02-55

Letter from Peres Fobes to Caleb Gannet, 1784 August 24; Raynham, [MA].

Describes the ways in which the design of his orrery is an improvement on others.

Creator:  Fobes, Peres, 1742-1812; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-56

Letter from Benjamin Waterhouse, 1794 November 11; Cambridge, [MA].

Presents a bottle of Saratoga medicinal waters; describes the various springs around Saratoga. Discusses the composition and uses of the waters.

Creator:  Waterhouse, Benjamin, 1754-1846; elected 1795

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Page 02-57

"Account of Rain 1794-1795; Account of Snows for the Years 1786 to 1796."

Gives the amount of rain in each instance for the years 1794-1795; Gives the first and last snowfall and total number during the year for 1786-1796. Contemporary note that the paper was superseded.

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Page 02-58

Letter from Benjamin Dearborn to Joseph Willard, 1795 January 28; Boston.

Presents and describes "a miniature model of a bridge constructed with one arch".

Creator:  Dearborn, Benjamin, 1754-1838; elected 1794

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Page 02-59

Letter from James Winthrop, 1795 May 7; Cambridge, [MA].

Notes objections made to the paper "The Method of finding Geometrical Means between Given Extremes"; counters objection with explanation.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-60

"A geometrical illustration of the square-root; or the grounds & reasons for the common process, which is used for the extraction of it," addressed to Joseph Willard, 1795 August 17; Marblehead.

Expresses desire to understand rationale of mathematic processes. Gives an example of extracting square roots geometrically.

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Page 02-61

Letter from [unknown] to Benjamin Dearborn, 1795 November 1; Jaffrey, [NH].

Disproves an undemonstrated proposition made by Oliver Evans in his book the "Mill-wright and Miller's Guide". Specifically that "a quadruple impulse, or moving power is requite to communicate double velocity to a body".

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Page 02-62

"A New Method of working a Lunar Observation," [ca. 1797 January].

Describes problems with using current methods of calculating the distance of an object from the moon; proposes and describes new method of calculating differences using the moon.

Creator:  Bowditch, Nathaniel, 1773-1838; elected 1799

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Page 02-63

"Appendix to the method of working a Lunar observation," [ca. 1797 January].

Explains how to make additions to tables of logarithmic sines to aid in find the distance of an object from the moon; includes example.

Creator:  [Bowditch, Nathaniel, 1773-1838]; elected 1799

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Page 02-64

Letter from Joshua Felton to John Warren, 1797 January 16; Roxbury, MA.

Presents a bill of mortality for Roxbury, Massachusetts for the years 1794-1796; lists the number of deaths in each age range for every year.

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Page 02-65

Letter from Joseph Greenleaf to John Warren, 1796 May 31; Boston.

Discusses his last communication, and responds to the request that he give his reasons for why he thinks saltpeter might be produced from pot ash.

Creator:  Greenleaf, Joseph, 1720-1810

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Page 02-66

Letter from Joseph Greenleaf to John Warren, 1797 May 29; Boston.

Further gives his reasons for why he thinks salt peter might be produced from pot ash; claims sulfur is not a requirement for gun powder.

Creator:  Greenleaf, Joseph, 1720-1810

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Page 02-67

"An Account of the deleterious effects of mesohitic air, or marsh miasmata, experience by three men July 27 1797, in a well, on the Boston Peir [sic]," addressed to Joseph Willard.

Describes soil stratum, and experience of those boring through the various layers, found while digging a well on the Boston pier.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-68

"A Bill of Mortality &c for the East Precinct in Barnstable for the year 1797 addressed to Secretary of the Academy."

Tabulates causes of death by month and age group for the year 1797 in the East Precinct of Barnstable.

Creator:  Miller, John, Jr

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Page 02-69

"A Bill of Mortality &c for the East Precinct in Barnstable from Jany 1st 1796 to Jany 1st 1797," addressed to Benjamin Dearborn.

Tabulates causes of death by month and age group for the year 1797 in the East Precinct of Barnstable.

Creator:  Miller, John, Jr.

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Page 02-70

"A Demonstration that Mr. Winthrop's duplication of the Cube, in Vol. 2, part 1. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences is universally false," 1798 June 2; Hallowell, in the district of Maine.

Describes Mr. Winthrop's method of "finding two mean proportionals between two given extremes"; refutes Mr. Winthrop's method.
Note: Contemporary title changed to "Remarks on Mr. Winthrop's paper on the duplication of the cube in part 1 of this volume."

Creator:  Baron, George, d. 1818.

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Page 02-71

Letter from Noah Webster to [John] Lathrop, 1798 August 9; New Haven, [CT].

Proposes that comets and subterranean fire affect the weather and human health; gives several accounts to support hypothesis.

Creator:  Webster, Noah, 1758-1843; elected 1799

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Page 02-72

Letter from Noah Webster to [John] Lathrop, 1798 August 9; New Haven, [CT].

Proposes that comets and subterranean fire affect the weather and human health; gives several accounts to support hypothesis.

Creator:  Webster, Noah, 1758-1843; elected 1799

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Page 02-73

Letter from John Lathrop to Joseph Willard, [1798] August 14.

Addendum to earlier communication describes a case of men struck by lightning while digging a grave; and considers a theory on lightning the case appears to support.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-74

Letter from Jedidiah Morse to Eliphalet Pearson, 1798 August 22; Charlestown, [MA].

Describes the method of collection statistics for the bill of mortality; encloses bill of mortality for Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1789 to 1797.

Creator:  Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826; elected 1796

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Page 02-75

"A Bill of Mortality, and of the Births, Marriages and Baptisms, for the Town of Charlestown, (Massachusetts) for the years 1789 to 1797, both inclusive; to which is prefixed a description of the town," addressed to Eliphalet Pearson, 1798 February 9; Charlestown.

Describes the situation and layout of Charlestown in detail, briefly noting the issues it dealt with in the past.
Note: Annotated "No. 2".

Creator:  Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826.

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Page 02-76

"Bill of Mortality for Charlestown, (Massts) that part of it which lies within the Rock or within the limits of the Parish, for the years 1789, 1790, 1791,1792, 1793, 1794, 1795, 1796 & 97," addressed to Eliphalet Pearson, ca. 1798; Charlestown.

For the years 1789-1797, in separate tables notes causes of death per year, amount of rainfall, number of deaths per month, and number of births, baptisms, and marriages.

Creator:  [Morse, Jedidiah, 1761-1826]

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Page 02-77

"Dissections," 1798 September 8; Boston.

Describes three dissections of persons that died during a 1798 epidemic that support the use of calomel (mercury) in medical treatments.

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Page 02-78

"Account of a Water Spout in Watuppa Pond, at Freetown," addressed to John Davis, 1798 October 5; Middleborough, [MA].

Describes Watuppa Pond and the weather on the day of the occurrence; accounts the appearance of a water "Pyramid or Cone" 40' high; proposes theory as to the cause.

Creator:  Bennet, Nehemiah

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Page 02-79

"Bill of Mortality for 130 to 140 Families from May 1768 to May 1775"; Boston.

Tabulates for each year the cause of death, and the sex and age of the deceased person.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-80

"Bill of Mortality for between 130 to 140 Families from Jany 1790 to Jany 1798"; Boston.

Tabulates for each year the cause of death, and the sex and age of the deceased person.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-81

"Effects of Lightening on Several Persons, in the House of Samuel Carrey Esqr. Of Chelsia [sic]. August 2 1799," addressed to John Davis, ca. 1799.

Describes the circumstances that preceded lightning striking several persons; gives some conjecture as to cause.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-82

"Remarks on an eclipse of the Moon seen at Jerusalem, not long before the death of Herod, & mentioned by Josephus," 1800 January 10; Cambridge, [MA].

Asserts the importance of dating an eclipse in the time of King Herod in "ascertain[ing] the true point of time from which the Christian era ought to be dated"; discusses the calculations of other scholars.

Creator:  Winthrop, James, 1752-1821; Charter Member, 1780

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Page 02-83

Letter from Benjamin Franklin Stickney to John Prince, 1800 March 26; Salem, [MA].

Describes his invention called the "Water Balloon" as an alternative to the diving bell; describes invention; reports experiments; includes illustrations.

Creator:  Stickney, Benjamin Franklin, 1775-1857

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Page 02-83v

[Paper wrapper] addressed to John Prince, [1800 March 26]; [Salem, MA].

"For Diving &c".

Creator:  Stickney, Benjamin Franklin, 1775-1857

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Page 02-84A

"Fig 3 & 4" addressed to [John Prince], [1800 March 26]; [Salem, MA].

Illustrates diving bell in figure 3 and and its use in figure 4.

Creator:  [Stickney, Benjamin Franklin, 1775-1857]

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Page 02-84B

"Fig 2" addressed to [John Prince], [1800 March 26]; [Salem, MA].

Illustrates in larger detail the diving bell in use.

Creator:  [Stickney, Benjamin Franklin, 1775-1857]

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Page 02-84C

"Fig 1" addressed to [John Prince], [1800 March 26]; [Salem, MA].

Illustrates a cross section of the diving bell in use.

Creator:  [Stickney, Benjamin Franklin, 1775-1857]

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Page 02-85

Letter from John Lathrop to John Davis, 1800 August 18; Boston.

Describes water systems in and around Boston and how they function.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-86

"Full moon immediately preceeding [sic] Christian Era by Ferguson's tables."

Uses Ferguson's astronomical tables to calculate the date of a full moon's eclipse.
Note: Work referenced is likely "Astronomical Tables" (1763) by James Ferguson (1710-1776).

Creator:  [Winthrop, James, 1752-1821]; Charter Member, 1780.

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Page 02-87

"An Account of a Voyage Across the Atlantic," addressed to Secretary of the American Academy.

Describes a voyage made to test "the principles of a plan…which relate to the magnetic variation".

Creator:  Churchman, John, 1753-1805

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Page 02-88

Letter to John Davis, 1800 December 15; Boston.

Presents "Oliver's Essay on Comets" to the Academy; discusses exchange of knowledge between nations and the subject of comets.

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Page 02-89

Letter from John Lathrop to John Davis.

Describes water systems in and around Boston and how they function.
Note: first page numbered "5", manuscript likely begins with p. 90.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790.

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Page 02-90

"VIII. An Account of the Springs and Wells on the peninsula of Boston, with an attempt to explain the manner in which they are supplied in a letter from John Lathrop, D.D. F.A.A. to the Hon'e John Davis Esq.," addressed to John Davis, 1800 May 10; Boston.

Describes water systems in and around Boston and how they function.
Note: Appears to be missing pages; likely continued in letter on page 89.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790.

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Page 02-91

Letter from Loammi Baldwin, 1801 January 28.

Describes the process of creating mortar used in the construction of a canal on the island of St. Eustacia.

Creator:  Baldwin, Loammi, 1745-1807; elected 1782

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Page 02-92

Letter from John Churchman to [Benjamin] Lincoln, 1801 January 28; Boston.

Notes Lincoln's account on the banks of the York River in Virginia, sent to Joseph Willard; states theory that the sea levels are rising on the eastern United States. To prove this, asks for sets of data.

Creator:  Churchman, John, 1753-1805

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Page 02-93

Letter from Joseph McKeen to Eliphalet Pearson, 1801 February 18; Beverly, [MA].

Describes his study on the mortality of "six catalogues of scholars"; charts the number of Harvard graduates who live at each decade of life. Annotated: "To be reserved till further Communications and math on the subject".

Creator:  McKeen, Joseph, 1757-1807; elected 1796.

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Page 02-94A

Wrapper addressed to Caleb Gannet, [1801 September 22]; [Canton, China].

Contained "Meteorological Observations, Canton in China" Contemporary note that it was committed to Dr. Lathrop.

Creator:  [Dorr, John]

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Page 02-94B

Meteorological Observations, Canton in China addressed to [Caleb Gannet], 1801 September 22; [Canton, China].

Provides table of Temperatures May 1 - October 31, 1800 in Canton, China.

Creator:  Dorr, John

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Page 02-95

Letter from George Osgood to Eliphalet Pearson, 1802 June 1; Andover, [MA].

Accounts the "sufferings of Mrs. Osgood" after the birth of her fifth child; describes an "Extra-Uterine foetus" found after her death; offers to send foetal bones along to the Academy.

Creator:  Osgood, George, 1758-1823

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Page 02-96

Letter from George Osgood to Aaron Dexter, 1802 July 17; Andover, [MA].

Suggests publishing the case of Mrs. Osgood with the case of Mrs. Low; recalls when the case of Mrs. Osgood was first published.

Creator:  Osgood, George, 1758-1823

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Page 02-97

Letter from Wenckebach, 1802 October 21; The Hauge, The Netherlands.

Follows up on his request written the same day for a publication exchange with the Academy, with a request for grain exchanges, to benefit Batavia and New England as their latitudes are similar. Notes both requests have also been made to the American Philosophical Society.

Creator:  [Wenckebach, Caspar Johan]

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Page 02-98

Letter from George Osgood to Eliphalet Pearson, 1803 January 13; Andover, [MA].

Replies to letter of January 5, 1803, recounting in detail the case of a Mrs. Osgood from his papers and memory, noting some copies of his original papers on file at the Massachusetts Medical Society.

Creator:  [Osgood, George, 1758-1823]

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Page 02-99

"Abstract of Meteorological observations made at Muchillimackinac [sic] from August 1802 to April 1803 both inclusive"; [Fort Michilimackinac, MI].

Charts general weather, temperature, and wind course in Fort Michilimackinac, MI.

Creator:  Dunham, Josiah, 1769-1844

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Page 02-100

"Account of Rain etc that fell in at Charlestown Massachusetts in Ten years, 1803 January 3"; [Charlestown, MA].

Charts by year the amount of rain that fell each month from 1792-1801 in Charlestown, MA with a note of operation.

Creator:  [Barrell, Joseph]

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Page 02-101

[Letter to John Davis requesting alterations to communication on salt works previously sent] addressed to John Davis, 1804 February 10; Plymouth, [MA].

Requests alteration of text in communication on salt works previously sent before it may be published.

Creator:  Thacher, James, 1754-1844

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Page 02-102

Letter from Joseph Avery to John Warren, 1804 February 10; Holden, [MA].

Relates successful experiments in using a whale bone to detect running water; deduces theory of attraction from observations.

Creator:  Avery, Joseph

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Page 02-103

Letter from William Dandridge Peck to John Davis, 1804 October 20; Newbury, [MA].

Encloses the papers of the Batavian Council; lists trees and where they are found by himself and Dr. Cutler, and whether they have a seed or are able to preserve the root.

Creator:  Peck, Wililam Dandridge, 1763-1822; elected 1793

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Page 02-104

Letter from Samuel Foster to Loammi Baldwin, 1804 October 26; Candia, NH.

Forwards a sample of an unknown "fossil substance"; describes where it is found experiments with it, suspecting it to be of vegetable matter.

Creator:  Foster, Samuel

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Page 02-105

Letter from Samuel Foster to Loammi Baldwin, 1805 February 23; Candia, NH.

Responds to Baldwin's letter of Dec. 24 reporting observations of the "fossil substance" found by Foster; acquiesces to Baldwin's request to share his earlier letter with others. Concludes with note on the increasing practice of draining swamplands.

Creator:  Foster, Samuel

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Page 02-106

"Effects of Lightning on the house of Capt. Daniel Merry, and several other Houses in the vicinity, on the evening of the 11th May, 1805," addressed to John Davis, [1805 May]; [Boston].

Describes the situation of the houses near Hancock Wharf, the weather, and particular consequences of lightning hitting the houses; some discussion on the nature of lightning.

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-107

Letter to the President and Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences presents a "projection" for teaching astronomy, 1806 January 29; Boston.

Describes the author's 'projection' for teaching astronomy; requests a judgment made upon it by the Academy.

Creator:  Fairbanks, John, 1777-1814

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Page 02-108

Letter from Thaddeus Mason Harris to John Davis, 1806 October 22; Dorchester, [MA].

Upon request, relates discovery in 1802 of pawpaw and ivory shells, not native, found in mud in Dorchester; describes the lay of the land where the mud was harvested.

Creator:  Harris, Thaddeus Mason, 1768-1842; elected 1806

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Page 02-109

"Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman in Madrid & his friend in Boston," dated April 28 1807.

Describes temperature changes in the atmosphere in 1806.

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Page 02-110 [1]

"Effects of Lightning on the House of the Rev. Silas Moody, in Arundel, in Maine, August 17, 1807," addressed to John Eliot, 1807 August 17; Arundel, [MA].

In response to Academy's call for communications on lightning, describes effect of a lighting strike upon his home in Arundel.
Note: Two pages in the volume are numbered 110, for clarity, this page has been numbered 110 [1], what followed has been numbered 110 [2].

Creator:  Moody, Silas, 1742-1816.

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Page 02-110 [2]

"Effects of Lightning on the house of Capt. N. Thomas Manning in Portsmouth, New Hampshire," addressed to John Eliot, 1807 December 14; Portsmouth, NH.

Describes the passage of a lighting bolt through a house in Portsmouth on May 22, 1807.
Note: Two pages in this volume are numbered 110, for clarity, this page has been numbered 110 [2] as it appeared directly after 110 [1].

Creator:  Alden, Timothy, 1771-1839.

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Page 02-112

Letter from Parker Cleaveland to Levi Hedge, 1808 September 29; Bowdoin College.

Gives meteorological observations made at Bowdoin College for 1807 and 1808; notes theory of Dr. Holyoke that extreme highs and lows of America as compared to Europe are due to number of evergreens.

Creator:  Cleaveland, Parker, 1780-1858; elected 1809

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Page 02-113

Letter from Parker Cleaveland to Levi Hedge, 1808 October 10; Bowdoin College.

Discusses implications of fossils on history of the earth; describes two excavations of wells near Bowdoin.

Creator:  Cleaveland, Parker, 1780-1858; elected 1809

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Page 02-114

Letter from Thaddeus Mason Harris to John Quincy Adams, 1808 November 5; Dorchester, MA.

Describes square copper coins found in 1787; refers to theory of pre-colonial immigration of peoples from Russia and the Tartary.

Creator:  Harris, Thaddeus Mason, 1768-1842; elected 1806

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Page 02-115

"Meteorological Observations at Grove Plantation, 5 miles south of Natchez," [1808].

Tabulates in three tables the temperature and rainfall for 1795-1808, notes snow was melted into water and measured as rain.

Creator:  Sargent, Winthrop, 1753-1820; elected 1788

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Page 02-116

"Account of Meteorological Observations made in Georgia & South Carolina," [1809].

Tabulates meteorological observations in Georgia and South Carolina for years 1787-1791 and 1750-1759; includes conclusions.

Creator:  Holmes, Abiel, 1763-1837; elected 1803

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Page 02-117

Letter from A. Fothergill to W. Spooner & A. Dexter, 1809 March 6; Philadelphia.

Notes his delay of thanks for hospitality received in Boston due to a catarrh; notes Dr. Dexter's letter of June 22 and gives his thanks; presents papers to the Academy written during his illness; writes of cold weather in Philadelphia and comments on instances of inoculation.
Note: Previously sent paper "On the Origin and Formation of Ice Islands and Their Dangerous Effects in Navigation" published that year in Memoirs. Papers to in this article likely "Dissertation on the Dangers to which Incautious Divers are Exposed", "Essay on the Art of Aerostation" & "Animadversions on the Dangerous Practice of Sleeping on the Damp Ground and of Exposure to the Night Air, Particularly Where the Animal Powers Are Diminished; Illustrated on Philosophical Principles".

Creator:  Fothergill, A. (Anthony), 1732?-1813.

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Page 02-118

Letter from John Lathrop to Samuel Webber, 1809 [no month given] 11; Boston.

Discusses Mr. Willard's request to "have a part or the whole of the missing part of the Memoir on strings".

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-119

Letter from John Lathrop to Samuel Webber, 1809 May 13; Boston.

Encloses "the remainder of the missing Memoirs on strings" and discusses publication of the Memoirs; sends "votes of the corporation".

Creator:  Lathrop, John, 1740-1816; elected 1790

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Page 02-120

Letter from John Davis to Dudley Tyng, 1810 January 30; Boston.

Encloses letter from Mr. Tilden on a phenomenon of lamprey eels, which he posits may be related to galvanism and electricity.

Creator:  Davis, John, 1761-1847; elected 1792

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Page 02-121

Letter from Joseph Tilden to John Davis, 1809 November 29; Boston.

Describes how lamprey eels of Machias, Maine are sensitive to the introduction of human saliva into their waters.

Creator:  Tilden, Joseph (Director); elected 1812

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Page 02-122

Letter from Ignatius Thomson to Adams; Pomfrey, VT.

Reports observations on the Aurora Borealis; proposes theory on formation of Aurora Borealis.

Creator:  Thomson, Ignatius, 1774-1848

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Page 02-123

Testimony addressed to Alden Bradford, 1810 August 29; Portland, [MA].

At the request of Lemuel Weeks, recounts sighting of a Sea Serpent in Penobscot Bay while traveling down the river toward Bateman Island.

Creator:  Tickey, Stephen

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Page 02-124

Testimony, 1810 August 22; Portland, [MA].

At the request of Lemuel Weeks, recounts sighting of a Sea Serpent in Penobscot Bay about the year 1775.
Note: I-C-2-Unbound has two other versions of Eleazar Crabtree's account, Folders 8 & 9.

Creator:  Crabtree, Eleazer, 1745-1824

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Page 02-[125]

Index of correspondents and related persons.

Typewritten names with page numbers.
Note: 3 pages, 1 blank.

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