President of Carnegie Corporation of New York, a private philanthropic and grant-making institution founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1911 to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding. Prior to that, he was President of Brown University and a Professor of History at Brown University from 1989-1997. He was President and Chief Executive Officer of the New York Public Library from 1981-1989. He is a member of the board of the National September 11 Memorial and Museum at the World Trade Center, The Library of Alexandria, and the American Academy in Berlin among others. He has served on the boards of the Gates Foundation, the J. Paul Getty Trust, the Institute of Advanced Study, Human Rights Watch, Central European University, the Museum of Modern Art, and the McGraw-Hill Companies and many other nonprofit foundations and organizations.