International Perspectives on the Goals of Universal Basic and Secondary Education

Joel E. Cohen and Martin B. Malin
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Although universal schooling has been adopted as a goal by international organizations, bilateral aid agencies, national governments, and non-profit organizations, little sustained international attention has been devoted to the purposes or goals of universal education. What is universal primary and secondary education intended to accomplish? This book offers views from Asia, Africa, Europe, North America and South America on the purposes of universal education while considering diverse cultures, religions, and professions. It is the first book in which renowned authors from around the world have proposed, considered, and debated goals of basic and secondary education, engaging in a constructive dialogue on one of the most pressing issues facing education today.

Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group


1. Goals of Universal and Basic Secondary Education Joel E. Cohen.

Educational Goals for Tomorrow's Society
2. Education for All, But for What? Kai-ming Cheng
3. Goals of Universal Primary and Secondary Education in the 21st Century: Reviving the Spirit of Socrates. Kishore Mahbubani
4. What Will Be the Near-Future Goals of Education? William K. Cummings.

Educational Priorities in Poor Countries
5. Quality Education: The Work of Optimists Beryl Levinger
6. Achieving Education of High Quality in Islamiyya Schools of Nigeria Mallam Bala Ahmed
7. Nurturing Learning Ability: The Goals of Universal Primary and Secondary Education Camer Vellani
8. Quality, the Heart of Equity Vimala Ramachandran.

Empowering Children through Art and Science
9. The dia Program: The Development of Intelligence through Art Claudia Madrazo
10. Educational Goals: Art, Science, Love, and the Importance of Binocular Vision Joel E. Cohen.

The Special Role of Skepticism as Universal Educational Goal
11. What Does "Universal" Education Mean? James Carroll
12. Teaching Tolerance and Open-Minded Approaches to Understanding Sacred Texts Mohamed Charfi and Hamadi Redissi
13. Educating All the People for Democratic Governance: A U.S. Perspective Deborah Meier.

Educating Global Citizens
14. Educating for Global Competency Fernando Reimers
15. Education and the Globalization Paradigm Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco.

Perspectives on Assessment and Educational Goals
16. Evaluating Basic and Secondary Education Ana Carolina Letichevsky
17. For What Should Schools Be Held Accountable? Richard Rothstein and Rebecca Jacobsen

Defining Educational Quality as a Basis for Educational Policy
18. Quality Education: A UNESCO Perspective Mary Joy Pigozzi
19. Quality Education - What Is It and Who Decides? Briefing Paper for a Policy Maker George M. Ingram.
20. The Challenge of Defining a Quality Universal Education: Mapping a Common Core Laura Hersh Salganik and Stephen J. Provasnik



Joel E. Cohen is the Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor of Populations at the Rockefeller University, New York. He heads the Laboratory of Populations at the Rockefeller and Columbia Universities. At Columbia University, New York, he is Professor of Populations in the Earth Institute, with appointments in the Departments of International and Public Affairs; Earth and Environmental Sciences; and Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology.

Martin B. Malin is the Executive Director of the Managing the Atom Project at the Kennedy School of Government of Harvard University. He is a former Program Director at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.