Shared Responsibilities for Nuclear Disarmament: A Global Debate


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Scott D. Sagan, James M. Acton, Jayantha Dhanapala, Mustafa Kibaroglu, Harald Müller, Yukio Satoh, Mohamed I. Shaker, and Achilles Zaluar
Global Nuclear Future

James M. Acton is an associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, specializing in nonproliferation and disarmament. A physicist by training, he is co-author of the Adelphi Paper, Abolishing Nuclear Weapons and co-editor of the follow-up volume, Abolishing Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (both with George Perkovich). He is currently the joint U.K. member of the International Panel on Fissile Materials and was a participant in the U.K.-Norway dialogue on warhead verification. Before joining the Endowment in October 2008, he was a lecturer at the Centre for Science and Security Studies in the Department of War Studies at King’s College London.

Jayantha Dhanapala is President of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. Previously he served as Senior Advisor to the President of Sri Lanka, Secretary General of the Secretariat for Coordinating the Peace Process in Sri Lanka, Under-Secretary General for the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs, Sri Lankan Ambassador to the United States and to Mexico, and Director of the UN Institute for Disarmament Research, among many other diplomatic and governmental positions. He was President of the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference and the 1984 Conference on Disarmament.

Mustafa Kibaroglu teaches courses on arms control and disarmament in the Department of International Relations at Bilkent University in Ankara, Turkey. In 2004–2005, he was a Joint Research Fellow at the Harvard University Belfer Center’s Project on Managing the Atom/Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program and International Security Program. He has also held fellowships at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. He is a member of the Council of Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.

Harald Müller is Professor of International Relations at Goethe-University in Frankfurt and Executive Director of the Peace Research Institute in Frankfurt. He has been a member of numerous working groups on nonproliferation and served as Chairman of the UN’s Advisory Board on Disarmament in 2004. His publications include Building a New World Order (2009), “Democracy and Nuclear Arms Control—Destiny or Ambiguity?” Security Studies (2008), “Arms Control in the 21st Century,” Journal of International Peace and Organization (2008), Democracy and Security: Preferences, Norms, and Policy-Making (2008), and Democratic Wars: Looking at the Dark Side of Democratic Peace (2006).

Scott D. Sagan, a Fellow of the American Academy since 2008, is Caroline S.G. Munro Professor of Political Science and Codirector of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. Before joining the Stanford faculty, he was a lecturer in the Department of Government at Harvard University and served as a special assistant to the director of the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon. He has also served as a consultant to the office of the Secretary of Defense and at the Sandia National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. He is Codirector of the American Academy’s Initiative on the Global Nuclear Future. His publications include The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed (with Kenneth N. Waltz, 2003), The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons (1993), and Moving Targets: Nuclear Strategy and National Security (1989).

Yukio Satoh is Vice Chairman of the Japan Institute of International Affairs in Tokyo and an accomplished Japanese diplomat. He served as the Permanent Representative of Japan to the United Nations (1998–2002). He also served as the Ambassador of Japan to The Netherlands (1994–1996) and to Australia (1996–1998). He has written numerous articles on security issues both in English and in Japanese.

Mohamed I. Shaker is Vice Chairman of the Board of the Egyptian Council for Foreign Affairs and former Egyptian Ambassador to the United Kingdom. His publications include “Nuclear Power in the Arab World & the Regionalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: An Egyptian Perspective,” Daedalus (2010); “The Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: An Arab Perspective,” Disarmament Forum (2008); The Evolving International Regime of Nuclear Non-Proliferation (2007; originally published in Recueil des Cours, International Law Academy, The Hague, 2006); and The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Origin and Implementation, 1959–1979, three volumes (1980).

Achilles Zaluar is Minister-Counselor of Political Affairs at the Brazilian Embassy to the United States in Washington, D.C. Previously he was Minister-Counselor of Multilateral and International Security Affairs at the Brazilian Embassy to the United States. From 1997 to 1998 he served as a member of the team that drafted the position papers and presidential message for Brazil’s accession to the NPT. He has held posts at the Brazilian Mission to the United Nations and at the Brazilian Embassy to Paraguay.