Governance of Dual-Use Technologies: Theory and Practice

List of Acronyms

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Elisa D. Harris, James M. Acton, and Herbert Lin
Global Nuclear Future
ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
ACM Association for Computer Machinery
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AG Australia Group
ASM American Society of Microbiology
ATCSA Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act
BMBL Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories
BRC biological resource centers
BWC Biological Weapons Convention
CAD computer-aided design
CAM computer-aided manufacturing
CBB Center for Biosecurity and Biopreparedness
CBMs confidence-building measures
CCL Commerce Control List
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CETR Centers of Excellence for Translational Research
CFAA Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
COBRAT Steering Committing on Biotechnological Research in an Age of Terrorism
CPPNM Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
CRG Compliance Review Group CTR Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction DDOS distributed denial of service DHS Department of Homeland Security DOD Department of Defense DU dual-use DURC dual-use research of concern EAA Export Administration Act EC European Commission; European Council ECPA Electronic Communications Privacy Act EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EU European Union FBI Federal Bureau of Investigations FESAP Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel FTAC-SAR Fast Track Action Committee on Select Agent Regulations FY fiscal year GOF gain of function GGE Group of Governmental Experts on Information, Telecommunications, and International Security GMOs genetically modified organisms HEU highly enriched uranium HHS Department of Health and Human Services HPAI highly pathogenic avian influenza IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAP InterAcademy Panel IBC institutional biosafety committees ICSANT International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism ICT information and communications technology IRB institutional review boards IRE institutional review entity IT information technology ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations KNAW Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences LEU low enriched uranium LOAC law of armed conflict MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome NAS National Academy of Sciences NIH National Institutes of Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NPT Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSABB National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity OECD Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development PI primary investigator PSI Proliferation Security Imitative R&D research and development RAC Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee RCEs Regional Centers of Excellence RDT&E research, development, test, and evaluation SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome SERCEB Southeast Regional Center of Excellence for Emerging Infections and Biodefense UN United Nations UNSCR UN Security Council Resolution USCYBERCOM United States Cyber Command USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USML United States Munitions List WHO World Health Organization WMD weapons of mass destruction WOOT workshops on offensive technologies