Research Paper
Meeting the Challenges of the New Nuclear Age:

Emerging Risks and Declining Norms in the Age of Technological Innovation and Changing Nuclear Doctrines

Nina Tannenwald, James M. Acton, and Jane Vaynman
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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Table of Contents


The Great Unraveling: The Future of the Nuclear Normative Order

Explaining Normative Change: Theoretical Perspectives
Two Ethical Views of Nuclear Weapons
The Existing Regime of Nuclear Restraint
The Undermining of the Deterrence Regime
The Norm of Non-Use
Normative Inconsistency: The Nuclear Powers and the Nonproliferation Norm

Technology, Doctrine, and the Risk of Nuclear War

Managing the Nuclear Order
Crises and Escalation
Looking Forward