Research Paper
Meeting the Challenges of the New Nuclear Age:

Nuclear Weapons in a Changing Global Order

Steven E. Miller, Robert Legvold, and Lawrence D. Freedman
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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Table of Contents

The Rise and Decline of Global Nuclear Order?

Unmanaged Competition, 1945–1970: Racing to Oblivion?
Managed Rivalry, 1970–2000: Building an Architecture of Restraint
The Tide Turns, 2000–2018: The Erosion of the Nuclear Order
Conclusion: New Realities, New Challenges

The Challenges of a Multipolar Nuclear World in a Shifting International Context

An Evolving Nuclear Order in a Changing International Setting
Ambiguities, Discrepancies, and Dangers in an Asymmetrical Nuclear Universe
Crisis Stability
If Deterrence Fails
On “Victory”
The Shadow of the Future

The Interplay Between the International System and the Global Nuclear Order

The Cold War Order
Post–Cold War Disorder
The Nuclear Order and the Political Order